Helge Frebel

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KIR3DL1 is one of the best-characterised inhibitory NK cell receptors. Unusually, one common allele at the 3DL1 locus encodes an activating receptor known as 3DS1. There is genetic evidence for a protective role of 3DS1 in certain viral diseases, but there has been uncertainty about expression of the 3DS1 protein. Using transfection, we show that surface(More)
Persistent viral infections are, by definition, associated with ineffective antiviral immunity, in particular those infections caused by viruses that are highly productive and replicative (including HIV, HBV and HCV). The reasons for ineffective antiviral immunity in these types of infections are complex and manifold, and only recently a more comprehensive(More)
The inhibitory programmed death 1 (PD-1)-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway contributes to the functional down-regulation of T cell responses during persistent systemic and local virus infections. The blockade of PD-1-PD-L1-mediated inhibition is considered as a therapeutic approach to reinvigorate antiviral T cell responses. Yet previous studies(More)
Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and tolerance. During viral infections, Treg cells can limit the immunopathology resulting from excessive inflammation, yet potentially inhibit effective antiviral T cell responses and promote virus persistence. We report here that the fast-replicating LCMV strain(More)
The identification of T cell co-inhibition as a central mechanism in the regulation of adaptive immunity during infectious diseases provides new opportunities for immunotherapeutic interventions. However, the fact that T cell activity is frequently downregulated during pathogen-directed responses suggests a pivotal physiological role of co-inhibitory(More)
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