Helge C. Johannssen

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Glutathione is the major cellular thiol present in mammalian cells and is critical for maintenance of redox homeostasis. However, current assay systems for glutathione lack application to intact animal tissues. To map the levels of glutathione in intact brain with cellular resolution (acute tissue slices and live animals), we have used two-photon imaging of(More)
The gate control theory of pain proposes that inhibitory neurons of the spinal dorsal horn exert critical control over the relay of nociceptive signals to higher brain areas. Here we investigated how the glycinergic subpopulation of these neurons contributes to modality-specific pain and itch processing. We generated a GlyT2::Cre transgenic mouse line(More)
Although the importance of reactive astrocytes during CNS pathology is well established, the function of astroglia in adult CNS homeostasis is less well understood. With the use of conditional, astrocyte-restricted protein synthesis termination, we found that selective paralysis of GFAP(+) astrocytes in vivo led to rapid neuronal cell loss and severe motor(More)
Two-photon Ca(2+) imaging allows functional studies of neuronal populations in the intact brain, but its application to the spinal cord in vivo has been limited. Here we present experimental procedures to label superficial dorsal horn populations with Ca(2+) indicator and to stabilize the spinal cord sufficiently to permit functional imaging in(More)
Two-photon microscopy enables high-resolution in vivo imaging of cellular morphology and activity, in particular of population activity in complex neuronal circuits. While two-photon imaging has been extensively used in a variety of brain regions in different species, in vivo application to the vertebrate spinal cord has lagged behind and only recently(More)
We present a cost-effective in vivo two-photon microscope with a highly flexible frontend for in vivo research. Our design ensures fast and reproducible access to the area of interest, including rotation of imaging plane, and maximizes space for auxiliary experimental equipment in the vicinity of the animal. Mechanical flexibility is achieved with large(More)
Inactivation of transcription factor Foxa1 in mice results in neonatal mortality of unknown cause. Here, we report that ablation of Foxa1 causes impaired development and loss of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Functional deficits in the STN have been implicated in the etiology of Huntington's and Parkinson's disease. We show that neuronal ablation by(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer into genetically defined neuron subtypes has become a powerful tool to study the neuroanatomy of neuronal circuits in the brain and to unravel their functions. More recently, this methodology has also become popular for the analysis of spinal cord circuits. To date, a variety of(More)