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Follistatin is known to antagonise the function of several members of the TGF-beta family of secreted signalling factors, including Myostatin, the most powerful inhibitor of muscle growth characterised to date. In this study, we compare the expression of Myostatin and Follistatin during chick development and show that they are expressed in the vicinity or(More)
Embryonic muscle growth requires a fine balance between proliferation and differentiation. In this study we have investigated how this balance is achieved during chick development. Removal of ectoderm from trunk somites results in the down-regulation of Pax-3 expression and cell division of myogenic precursors is halted. This initially leads to an(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle of trunk, limbs and tongue develops from a small population of cells that originates from somites. Although promoters and inhibitors of muscle differentiation have been isolated, nothing is known about how the amplification of the muscle precursor pool is regulated; this amplification provides muscle mass during development.(More)
Satellite cells are the resident stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, supplying myonuclei for homoeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. In this study, we have examined the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in regulating satellite cell function. Activated satellite cells expressed BMP receptor type 1A (BMPR-1A/Alk-3) and contained(More)
Cell size is determined by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. This equilibrium is affected by hormones, nutrients, energy levels, mechanical stress and cytokines. Mutations that inactivate myostatin lead to excessive muscle growth in animals and humans, but the signals and pathways responsible for this hypertrophy remain largely unknown.(More)
We report on the normal and experimentally altered expression of two structurally related genes, Follistatin and Follistatin-like (Flik), in the somites of avian embryos. In normal chick embryos, Follistatin expression can first be seen in the cells of the dorsolateral somite quarter. During somite maturation, the cells of the dorsomedial quarter also(More)
Myostatin is a potent inhibitor of muscle growth. Genetic deletion of Myostatin leads to massive hyperplasia and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. However, the overall muscle pattern is preserved. We show that, during chick embryonic development, Myostatin is expressed at stages and positions unlikely to influence qualitative muscle development. In the(More)
Nemaline myopathy (NEM) is a common congenital myopathy. At the very severe end of the NEM clinical spectrum are genetically unresolved cases of autosomal-recessive fetal akinesia sequence. We studied a multinational cohort of 143 severe-NEM-affected families lacking genetic diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of six families and targeted gene(More)
The lack of myostatin promotes growth of skeletal muscle, and blockade of its activity has been proposed as a treatment for various muscle-wasting disorders. Here, we have examined two independent mouse lines that harbor mutations in the myostatin gene, constitutive null (Mstn(-/-)) and compact (Berlin High Line, BEH(c/c)). We report that, despite a larger(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce ectopic cartilage and bone when implanted intramuscularly in adult rats. Expression data suggest that BMPs signal skeletal development in embryos. An important question is which cells are targets of BMP signaling in adult and embryonic tissues. Here, we examined the effect of BMP-2 on micromass cultures of chick(More)