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The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major concern thought to impact on immunologic escape and eventual vaccine efficacy. Here, simple and rapid methods are described for the detection and estimation of genetic divergence between HIV strains on the basis of the observation that DNA heteroduplexes formed between related sequences(More)
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. Only interferon-alpha and the nucleosidic inhibitors of the viral polymerase, 3TC and adefovir, are approved for therapy. However, these therapies are limited by the side effects of interferon and the substantial resistance of the virus to nucleosidic inhibitors. Potent new(More)
OBJECTIVE To genetically characterize HIV-1 strains in injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangkok, Thailand in 1994, and compare these with strains found earlier in Thai IDU; such information is essential for HIV-1 vaccine development and evaluation. METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 84 IDU attending 14 drug treatment clinics in(More)
We have identified the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the human counterpart of the mouse gene Plk (polo-like kinase). The sequence of the human gene, PLK, predicts a serine/threonine kinase of 603 aa. Expression of PLK mRNA appeared to be strongly correlated with the mitotic activity of cells. Resting peripheral lymphocytes did not express the(More)
Cells containing reporters which are specifically induced via selected promoters are used in pharmaceutical drug discovery and in environmental biology. They are used in screening for novel drug candidates and in the detection of bioactive compounds in environmental samples. In this study, we generated and validated a set of five Bacillus subtilis promoters(More)
A novel class of antibiotic acyldepsipeptides (designated ADEPs) exerts its unique antibacterial activity by targeting the peptidase caseinolytic protease P (ClpP). ClpP forms proteolytic complexes with heat shock proteins (Hsp100) that select and process substrate proteins for ClpP-mediated degradation. Here, we analyse the molecular mechanism of ADEP(More)
HEK2 belongs to the family of EPH-related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) which are involved in axonal pathfinding and the formation of the embryonic body plan. The knowledge about intracellular pathways of signal transduction mediated by EPH-related receptors is still limited. Many of the known key players of cellular signalling contain Src homology 2(More)
For the production of a chemically inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO), an adherent bovine kidney cell line was cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarriers in suspension culture. The inactivated and purified virus particles have shown immune modulatory activity in several animal models. PPVO was produced by a biphasic batch process at the 3.5 and 10 L scale.(More)
Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been implicated in intercellular communication during embryonic development. To elucidate their signal transduction pathways, we applied the yeast two-hybrid system. We could demonstrate that the carboxyl termini of the Eph-related RTKs EphA7, EphB2, EphB3, EphB5, and EphB6 interact with the PDZ domain of(More)
The continued evolution of resistance to antibiotics has led to wide ranging consultation at National and International levels as to how to address this issue. In addition to attempting to limit the spread of resistance there is growing consensus that a cornerstone requirement is the development of new antibiotics to help redress the balance of resistance(More)