Helga E Raab

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The proto-oncogene designated erbB2 or HER2 encodes a 185-kilodalton transmembrane tyrosine kinase (p185erbB2), whose overexpression has been correlated with a poor prognosis in several human malignancies. A 45-kilodalton protein heregulin-alpha (HRG-alpha) that specifically induced phosphorylation of p185erbB2 was purified from the conditioned medium of a(More)
A human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding protein from serum of cancer patients was purified to homogeneity and partially sequenced. Synthetic DNA probes based on amino acid sequence information were used to isolate cDNA clones encoding a receptor for TNF. The TNF receptor (TNF-R) is a 415 amino acid polypeptide with a single membrane-spanning region. The(More)
The reactive thiol in cysteine is used for coupling maleimide linkers in the generation of antibody conjugates. To assess the impact of the conjugation site, we engineered cysteines into a therapeutic HER2/neu antibody at three sites differing in solvent accessibility and local charge. The highly solvent-accessible site rapidly lost conjugated(More)
Antibody therapeutics have revolutionized the treatment of cancer over the past two decades. Antibodies that specifically bind tumor surface antigens can be effective therapeutics; however, many unmodified antibodies lack therapeutic activity. These antibodies can instead be applied successfully as guided missiles to deliver potent cytotoxic drugs in the(More)
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC), potent cytotoxic drugs covalently linked to antibodies via chemical linkers, provide a means to increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy by targeting the drug to neoplastic cells while reducing side effects. Here, we systematically examine the potential targets and linker-drug combinations that could provide an optimal ADC(More)
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are designed to facilitate the targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs to improve their tumor fighting effects and minimize systemic toxicity. However, efficacy and safety can potentially be compromised due to the release of conjugated drugs from the ADC with time while in circulation, resulting in changes in the(More)
Estrogen formation catalyzed by neural aromatase is crucial for the sexual differentiation of the brain. Ontogenic expression of aromatase mRNA and aromatase activity were studied in male and female rat midbrains. Aromatase mRNA was transiently expressed in both sexes showing maximum levels on postnatal day (P)2 and being absent on P20 and in adults.(More)
Recently, Stitt et al. (1995) reported that protein S (PS), but not Gas6, is a potent ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase known as Rse, Tyro 3, Brt, Sky, and Tif (hereafter referred to as Rse/Tyro 3). PS is an abundant serum protein previously characterized as an essential anticoagulant. Gas6, which was identified as a gene whose expression is increased(More)
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a transmembrane serine peptidase that belongs to the prolyl peptidase family. FAP has been implicated in cancer; however, its specific role remains elusive because inhibitors that distinguish FAP from other prolyl peptidases like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) have not been developed. To identify peptide motifs for(More)
The COOH terminus of decay accelerating factor (DAF) contains a signal that directs attachment of a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor in a process involving proteolytic removal of 17-31 COOH-terminal residues. Previous work suggested that two elements are required for anchor addition, a COOH-terminal hydrophobic domain (the GPI signal) and an(More)