Helga Bernhard

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Most epithelial sheets emerge during embryogenesis by a branching and growth of the epithelium. The surrounding mesenchyme is crucial for this process. We report that branching morphogenesis and the formation of a new epithelium from the mesenchyme in the embryonic kidney can be blocked by a monoclonal antibody reacting with a surface glycolipid,(More)
HER-2/neu, an overexpressed oncogenic protein, has been proposed as a human cancer vaccine target. HER-2/neu is a "self" protein, however, and methods of vaccine strategies that would be effective in immunizing patients to a "self" tumor Ag have not been established. Many of the tumor Ags defined in humans are nonmutated self proteins, e.g., MAGE, and(More)
The current studies evaluate granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a vaccine adjuvant. An important issue for developing vaccine therapy for human malignancy is identifying adjuvants that can elicit T-cell responses to proteins and peptides derived from "self" tumor antigens. GM-CSF, in vitro, stimulates the growth of(More)
The stimulation of a tumour-specific T-cell response has several theoretical advantages over other forms of cancer treatment. First, T cells can home in to antigen-expressing tumour deposits no matter where they are located in the body-even in deep tissue beds. Additionally, T cells can continue to proliferate in response to immunogenic proteins expressed(More)
Dendritic antigen-presenting cells are considered to be the most effective stimulators of T cell immunity. The use of dendritic cells has been proposed to generate therapeutic T cell responses to tumor antigens in cancer patients. One limitation is that the number of dendritic cells in peripheral blood is exceedingly low. Dendritic cells originate from(More)
The HER-2/neu oncogenic protein is a well-defined tumor antigen. HER-2/neu is a shared antigen among multiple tumor types. Patients with HER-2/neu protein-overexpressing breast, ovarian, non-small cell lung, colon, and prostate cancers have been shown to have a pre-existent immune response to HER-2/neu. No matter what the tumor type, endogenous immunity to(More)
15 cases of cimetidine-associated mental confusion have been reported. In order that this syndrome might be investigated changes in mental status (M.S.) were correlated with serum concentrations and renal and hepatic function in 36 patients, 30 patients had no M.S. change on cimetidine and 6 had moderate to severe changes. These 6 patients had both renal(More)
The study of oncogenic viruses led to the discovery that transforming retroviruses contain oncogenes homologous with and/or derived from cellular proto-oncogenes. In humans malignant transformation is often the result of the activation of proto-oncogenes. Normal proto-oncogenes can be activated to transforming proto-oncogenes by a variety of mechanisms(More)
Platinum/taxane combinations are widely used in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP), yielding response rates of 30% and median overall survival of 9-11 months in selected patients. Yet these combinations have not been subject to a randomised trial to overcome selection bias, a major problem in CUP. We randomised 92 patients to either(More)
The success of T cell-based cancer immunotherapy is limited by tumor's resistance against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Tumor-immune resistance is mediated by cell surface ligands that engage immune-inhibitory receptors on T cells. These ligands represent potent targets for therapeutic inhibition. So far, only few immune-suppressive ligands(More)