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Slow eye movement (SEM) at human sleep onset has been studied as a function of EEG and behavioral state but has not been subjected to systematic physical measurement. This study counted the frequency of horizontal SEM and quantified its physical properties during hypnagogic EEG stages 3-8 (stage 1 sleep). SEM amplitudes, peak velocities, and durations were… (More)
As a normal psychological event, dreaming is an object of fascination and of conflicting explanation. In biopsychological terms, this article compares 3 explanations of 1 salient feature of dream cognition. Physical movement can be measured in dream reports, can be understood in physiologic terms, and can provide a focus for comparing dream theories. In… (More)
Morsella et al. argue convincingly that consciousness is for adaptive voluntary action. What, then, is consciousness in a dream for? Two prior questions present themselves. In a dream, how do contents get into the conscious field? What are the properties of consciousness in a dream?
Toward illuminating the structure of Llewellyn's dream theory, I compare it in formal terms to Freud's dream theory. An alternative to both of these dream machines, grounded in the distribution of cholinergic activation in the central nervous system, is presented. It is suggested that neither "high" nor "low" dream theory is sufficient to account for the… (More)