Helene D. Gayle

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India's HIV epidemic is not yet contained and prevention in populations most at risk (high-risk groups) needs to be enhanced and expanded. HIV prevalence as measured through surveillance of antenatal and sexually transmitted disease clinics is the chief source of information on HIV in India, but these data cannot provide real insight into where transmission(More)
In the United States, HIV prevention programs have historically tailored activities for specific groups primarily on the basis of behavioral risk factors and demographic characteristics. Through the Serostatus Approach to Fighting the Epidemic (SAFE), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is now expanding prevention programs, especially for(More)
OBJECTIVES To review data on the extent of HIV infection and associated risk behaviors, the occurrence of AIDS, and HIV-related mortality in African Americans and to suggest what can be done to reduce HIV exposure and infection in this population. DESIGN/METHODS Review of epidemiologic, published, multisite data on HIV infection in, and related behaviors(More)
To investigate the genetic heterogeneity and epidemiological distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Thailand, we determined proviral sequences for 63 HIV-1-infected patients in various risk groups from all over the country between April and July, 1991. Two distinct genotypes of HIV-1, A and B, were found to segregate by mode of(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS To estimate the magnitude of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic among university students, we conducted a blinded HIV-seroprevalence survey at 19 universities throughout the United States. HIV-antibody testing was performed on blood collected for routine medical purposes at the student health centers of the participating(More)
Although global commitment to control the HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased significantly in recent years, the virus continues to spread with alarming and increasing speed. By the end of 2005, an estimated 40 million people worldwide were living with HIV infection or disease, a notable rise from the 35 million infected with HIV in 2001 (UNAIDS 2005). In 2005,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for HIV infection among abandoned Romanian infants and children living in a public institution. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 1990 among 101 children between 0 and 4 years of age living in an orphanage. Orphanage and hospital records were reviewed and a blood specimen for hepatitis B and HIV(More)
Explanations for racial/ethnic disparities in health are varied and complex. This paper reviews the literature to assess the extent to which current disparities are a consequence of racial differences in the social class composition of the US population. We focus this review on African Americans and examine studies that provide information on the effect of(More)