Helene C. Blanchard

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BACKGROUND Older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transgenic rats are a model for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). They show behavioral changes, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, and increased brain arachidonic acid (AA) enzymes. Aspirin (acetylsalicylate, ASA) inhibits AA oxidation by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. HYPOTHESIS(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic idiopathic pain syndromes are major causes of personal suffering, disability, and societal expense. Dietary n-6 linoleic acid has increased markedly in modern industrialized populations over the past century. These high amounts of linoleic acid could hypothetically predispose to physical pain by increasing the production of(More)
In 2000, Marquardt et al. (A. Marquardt, H. Stöhr, K. White, and B. H. F. Weber. 2000. cDNA cloning, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization of three members of the human fatty acid desaturase family. Genomics. 66: 176-183.) described the genomic structure of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster in humans. This cluster includes the FADS1 and(More)
BACKGROUND The polyunsaturated arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (AA and DHA) participate in cell membrane synthesis during neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, and neurotransmission throughout life. Each is metabolized via coupled enzymatic reactions within separate but interacting metabolic cascades. HYPOTHESIS AA and DHA pathway genes are(More)
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is a precursor to arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), which can be converted by brain lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes into various lipid mediators involved in the regulation of brain immunity. Brain AA metabolism is activated in rodents by the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study tested the(More)
Fetal and perinatal exposure to selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been reported to alter childhood behavior, while transient early exposure in rodents is reported to alter their behavior and decrease brain extracellular 5-HT in adulthood. Since 5-HT2A/2C receptor-mediated neurotransmission can involve G-protein coupled activation of(More)
Brain serotonergic signaling is coupled to arachidonic acid (AA)-releasing calcium-dependent phospholipase A2. Increased brain serotonin concentrations and disturbed serotonergic neurotransmission have been reported in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat model of depression, suggesting that brain AA metabolism may be elevated. To test this hypothesis,(More)
Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group VIa (iPLA2β) preferentially releases docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the sn-2 position of phospholipids. Mutations of its gene, PLA2G6, are found in patients with several progressive motor disorders, including Parkinson disease. At 4 months, PLA2G6 knockout mice (iPLA2β−/−) show minimal neuropathology but altered(More)
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