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The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of(More)
In most parts of the peripheral nervous system galanin is expressed at very low levels. To further understand the functional role of galanin, a mouse overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor-B was generated, and high levels of galanin expression were observed in several peripheral tissues and spinal cord. Thus, a large proportion of(More)
OBJECTIVE Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the most common cause of early-onset dementia. Pathological ubiquitinated inclusion bodies observed in FTLD and motor neuron disease (MND) comprise trans-activating response element (TAR) DNA binding protein (TDP-43) and/or fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein. Our objective was to identify the causative gene(More)
The enzyme gamma-secretase catalyzes the intramembrane proteolytic cleavage that generates the amyloid beta-peptide from the beta-amyloid precursor protein. The presenilin (PS) protein is one of the four integral membrane protein components of the mature gamma-secretase complex. The PS protein is itself subjected to endoproteolytic processing, generating(More)
The γ-secretase complex is responsible for intramembrane processing of over 60 substrates and is involved in Notch signaling as well as in the generation of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Aggregated forms of Aβ have a pathogenic role in Alzheimer disease and, thus, reducing the Aβ levels by inhibiting γ-secretase is a possible treatment strategy for Alzheimer(More)
The enzyme complex γ-secretase generates amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a 37-43-residue peptide associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1), the catalytical subunit of γ-secretase, result in familial AD (FAD). A unifying theme among FAD mutations is an alteration in the ratio Aβ species produced (the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio), but the molecular(More)
γ-Secretase inhibition represents a major therapeutic strategy for lowering amyloid β (Aβ) peptide production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Progress toward clinical use of γ-secretase inhibitors has, however, been hampered due to mechanism-based adverse events, primarily related to impairment of Notch signaling. The γ-secretase inhibitor MRK-560 represents(More)
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene remains the most strongly established risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Recently the gene, TOMM40, which is in linkage disequilibrium with APOE, was identified to be associated with LOAD in genome-wide association studies. One of the identified polymorphisms in TOMM40 is rs10524523, which is located in(More)
Gamma-secretase is an enzyme complex that mediates both Notch signaling and beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, resulting in the generation of Notch intracellular domain, APP intracellular domain, and the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta), the latter playing a central role in Alzheimer disease (AD). By a hitherto undefined mechanism, the activity of(More)
Mitochondria are physically and biochemically in contact with other organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Such contacts are formed between mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized subregions of ER, and the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). We have previously shown increased expression of MAM-associated proteins and enhanced(More)