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Autophagy is a cellular response to starvation which generates autophagosomes to carry cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Degradation through autophagy can provide an innate defence against virus infection, or conversely autophagosomes can promote infection by facilitating assembly of replicase proteins. We demonstrate(More)
UNLABELLED Replication of positive-sense RNA viruses is associated with the rearrangement of cellular membranes. Previous work on the infection of tissue culture cell lines with the betacoronaviruses mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) showed that they generate double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and convoluted(More)
UNLABELLED Coronaviruses from both the Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera interfere with the type I interferon (IFN) response in various ways, ensuring the limited activation of the IFN response in most cell types. Of the gammacoronaviruses that mainly infect birds, little is known about the activation of the host immune response. We show that the(More)
UNLABELLED The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses, and type I interferon (IFN) is a critical component of this response. Similar to other viruses, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has evolved under evolutionary pressure to evade and counteract the IFN response to enable its survival. Previously, we(More)
UNLABELLED During infection of their host cells, viruses often inhibit the production of host proteins, a process that is referred to as host shutoff. By doing this, viruses limit the production of antiviral proteins and increase production capacity for viral proteins. Coronaviruses from the genera Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus, such as severe acute(More)
The RNA polymerase of influenza A virus is a heterotrimeric complex of PB1, PB2 and PA subunits that is required for transcription and replication of the viral genome. Here, we demonstrate a differential requirement of the PA subunit for binding to the vRNA and cRNA promoters--specifically, PA is more important for binding to the cRNA than the vRNA(More)
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular response to starvation that leads to the degradation of organelles and long-lived proteins in lysosomes and is important for cellular homeostasis, tissue development and as a defense against aggregated proteins, damaged organelles and infectious agents. Although autophagy has been studied in many animal species,(More)
Autophagy functions as an intrinsic antiviral defense. However, some viruses can subvert or even enhance host autophagic machinery to increase viral replication and pathogenesis. The role of autophagy during avibirnavirus infection, especially late stage infection, remains unclear. In this study, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was used to(More)
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an economically important virus infecting chickens, causing large losses to the poultry industry globally. While vaccines are available, there is a requirement for novel vaccine strategies due to high strain variation and poor cross-protection. This requires a more detailed understanding of virus-host cell interactions(More)