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The hypothesis is advanced that the circadian pacemaker in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is composed at the molecular level of a nonredundant double complex of circadian genes (per1, cry1, and per2, cry2). Each one of these sets would be sufficient for the maintenance of endogenous rhythmicity and thus constitute an oscillator. Each would have(More)
125I-Melatonin was used to localize and characterize the melatonin receptor sites in the rat hypothalamus. Autoradiography revealed that displaceable 125I-melatonin binding occurred in suprachiasmatic nuclei and median eminence only. Further studies performed on crude membrane fractions from median eminences revealed high affinity (Kd = 21 pM) melatonin(More)
The SCN as a site of the circadian clock itself exhibits rhythmicity. A molecular clockwork responsible for the rhythmicity consists of clock genes and their negative and positive transcriptional-translational feedback loops. The authors' previous work showed that rhythms in clock gene expression in the rat SCN were not yet detectable at embryonic day (E)(More)
Melatonin content in the rat pineal decreases at night after exposure of animals to light, from 20 to 2 pmol/gland in 15 min. Melatonin concentration in serum fell precipitously in a manner almost identical to the drop in pineal melatonin only with a 5 min time lag. It is concluded that the rapid decrease in the pineal melatonin content is mainly due to an(More)
Rhythmicity of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a site of the circadian clock, develops prenatally. A molecular clockwork responsible for the rhythmicity consists of clock genes and their negative and positive transcriptional-translational feedback loops. The aim of the present study was to discover the development of the clockwork during ontogenesis.(More)
In the Djungarian hamster, short photoperiods induce regression of testes and accessory glands. There is evidence that the length of time melatonin levels are elevated is the signal conveying the photoperiodic effects to the neuroendocrine axis. When the temporal course of decompression of the pattern of pineal melatonin content was followed after a change(More)
Recent studies have shown that the waveform of the rhythm of c-Fos photoinduction in the ventrolateral (vl) part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and that of the rhythm in the spontaneous c-Fos production in the dorsomedial (dm) part of the SCN in rats released into constant darkness depend on the photoperiod under which the animals were previously(More)
In rats maintained for 2 days in constant darkness, the suprachiasmatic nucleus exhibited a circadian rhythm in c-Fos immunoreactivity, with the maximum in the morning and trough during the subjective night. In contrast to the night-time photic c-Fos induction occurring in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus, the spontaneous rhythmic c-Fos induction in(More)
Seasonal changes of daylength (photoperiod) affect the expression of hormonal and behavioral circadian rhythms in a variety of organisms. In mammals, such effects might reflect photoperiodic changes in the circadian pace-making system [located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus] that governs these rhythms, but to date no functionally(More)
1. The organization of the pacemaker driving the circadian rhythm of N-acetyltransferase activity in the rat pineal gland was studied by observing changes of the rhythm caused by 1 min light pulses applied at night. These pulses proved to be effective phase-shifting signals. 2. After 1 min light pulses applied in the first half of the night.(More)