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BACKGROUND WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. METHODS Children 3-59(More)
OBJECTIVE To review individual case histories of children who had died of pneumonia in rural Uganda and to investigate why these children did not survive. METHODS This case-series study was done in the Iganga/Mayuge demographic surveillance site, Uganda, where 67 000 people were visited once every 3 months for population-based data and vital events.(More)
BACKGROUND Improved case management of paediatric pneumonia is recognised as a key strategy for pneumonia control. Since symptoms of pneumonia and malaria often overlap, there are concerns that children with pneumonia are treated with antimalarial drugs. There is a need to describe how children with severe pneumonia have been managed prior to their arrival(More)
Febrile children in low-income countries receive care from multiple sources, and caretakers' ability to report drug intake is crucial for appropriate prescription of drugs when reaching health facilities. This study describes and validates caretakers' reported use of sulfamethoxazole, chloroquine and sulfadoxine in their children. We performed a(More)
objective In sub-Saharan Africa, the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) has raised awareness of alternative fever causes in children but few studies have included adults. To address this gap, we conducted a study of mRDT-negative fever aetiologies among children and adults in Tanzania. methods A total of 1028 patients aged 3 months to 50 years(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the 'under-5s' and in Uganda accounts for 10-30% of childhood deaths. Antibiotic resistance is increasing. OBJECTIVE To describe the bacterial aetiology, antimicrobial sensitivity and outcome of severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months admitted to the Acute Care Unit, Mulago(More)
There are growing concerns about irrational antibiotic prescription practices in the era of test-based malaria case management. This study assessed integrated paediatric fever management using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines, including the relationship between RDT-negative results and(More)
OBJECTIVE Cough or difficult breathing and an increased respiratory rate for their age are the commonest indications for outpatient antibiotic treatment in African children. We aimed to determine whether respiratory rate was likely to be transiently raised by a number of contextual factors in a busy clinic leading to inaccurate diagnosis. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the major killers of children under 5 years. Prompt and appropriate management is crucial; yet, the care a sick child receives depends on caretakers' perception of illness and action taken. Hence, understanding of local illness concepts on pneumonia and caretakers' response is crucial for interventions aimed at improved(More)
BACKGROUND In 2010, the World Health Organization revised guidelines to recommend diagnosis of all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. There has been no systematic assessment of malaria test uptake for pediatric fevers at the population level as countries start implementing guidelines. We examined test use for pediatric fevers in relation to malaria(More)