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Compiling pharmacological evidence implicates metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2) receptors in the regulation of emotional states and suggests positive modulators as a novel therapeutic approach of Anxiety/Depression and Schizophrenia. Here, we investigated subcutaneous effects of the metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2/3) agonist (LY354740) on sleep-wake architecture(More)
Several pharmacological studies involve experiments aimed at testing for a difference between experimental groups wherein the data are longitudinal in nature, frequently with long sequences per subject. Oftentimes, treatment effect, if present, is not constant over time. In such situations, imposing a parametric mean structure can be too complicated and/or(More)
Repeated measures are exploited to study reliability in the context of psychiatric health sciences. It is shown how test-retest reliability can be derived using linear mixed models when the scale is continuous or quasi-continuous. The advantage of this approach is that the full modeling power of mixed models can be used. Repeated measures with a different(More)
This work aims at applying concepts of generalizability theory to data resulting from clinical trials. The focus is to study the sources of variance and their impact on the reliability and generalizability of a psychiatric measurement scale. The goal is to identify, measure, and thereby potentially find strategies to reduce the influence of these sources on(More)
The Morris water maze, developed by Morris (J Neurosci Methods 1984: 11: 47-60), is a behavioral experiment designed to test the spatial memory. When repeating the experiment several times, the changes in time (latency) and distance (path) taken to reach the platform are indicators for the learning and memory abilities of the rat. In juvenile toxicity(More)
The validation of surrogate endpoints has been studied by Prentice, who presented a definition as well as a set of criteria that are equivalent if the surrogate and true endpoints are binary. Freedman et al. supplemented these criteria with the so-called proportion explained. Buyse and Molenberghs proposed to replace the proportion explained by two(More)
Neurons can transmit information about the characteristics of a stimulus via the spike rate of neurons and via synchronization of the neurons. To describe how 'synchronous' two spike trains are, a variety of association measures can be used. We propose a new measure of synchrony, the conditional syn-chrony measure, which is the probability of firing(More)
Part of the recent literature on the evaluation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints starts from a multitrial context, which leads to a definition of validity in terms of the quality of both trial-level and individual-level association between the surrogate and true endpoints (Buyse et al., 2000, Biostatistics1, 49-67). These authors concentrated on(More)
This work investigates whether techniques that are generally used for the validation of surrogate markers in clinical trials can be applied in the validation of psychiatric health measurements (often scales) and more generally to investigate relationships between treatment effects on different measurements. However, the categorical nature of some scales(More)