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The validation of surrogate endpoints has been studied by Prentice (1989). He presented a definition as well as a set of criteria, which are equivalent only if the surrogate and true endpoints are binary. Freedman et al. (1992) supplemented these criteria with the so-called 'proportion explained'. Buyse and Molenberghs (1998) proposed replacing the(More)
Compiling pharmacological evidence implicates metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2) receptors in the regulation of emotional states and suggests positive modulators as a novel therapeutic approach of Anxiety/Depression and Schizophrenia. Here, we investigated subcutaneous effects of the metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2/3) agonist (LY354740) on sleep-wake architecture(More)
We investigated the evolution of mortality from cervical cancer in Belgium between 1954 and 1994 in terms of absolute number of deaths, and standardised and age-specific mortality rates. Changes over generations were summarised using the standardised cohort mortality ratio. Trend studies of cervical cancer mortality were hampered by certification problems.(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that herpes zoster may be a marker for occult malignancy. AIM To examine the emergence of a subsequent cancer diagnosis in patients with and without herpes zoster. DESIGN OF STUDY Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Results were based on the database of Intego, an ongoing Belgian general practice-based morbidity(More)
According to the 1996-1998 cancer incidence report of the cancer registry of the Belgian province of Limburg (LIKAR), prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men with a crude invasive cancer incidence rate of 123.7 per 100000 person-years (125.4 and 81.8 after standardization for the European and the world standard population). In a study on(More)
We put a perspective on the strengths and limitations of statistical methods for the evaluation of surrogate endpoints. Whereas using several trials overcomes some of the limitations of a single-trial framework (Prentice, 1989, Statistics in Medicine 8, 431-440), arguably the evaluation of surrogate endpoints can never be done using only statistical(More)
The carcinogenicity potential of canagliflozin, an inhibitor of SGLT2, was evaluated in a 2-year rat study (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). Rats showed an increase in pheochromocytomas, renal tubular tumors, and testicular Leydig cell tumors. Systemic exposure multiples at the highest dose relative to the maximum clinical dose were 12- to 21-fold. Pheochromocytomas(More)
This work aims at applying concepts of generalizability theory to data resulting from clinical trials. The focus is to study the sources of variance and their impact on the reliability and generalizability of a psychiatric measurement scale. The goal is to identify, measure, and thereby potentially find strategies to reduce the influence of these sources on(More)
It is widely accepted that more needs to be done to bring new, safe, and efficacious drugs to the market. Cardiovascular toxicity detected both in early drug discovery as well as in the clinic, is a major contributor to the high failure rate of new molecules. The growth of translational safety offers a promising approach to improve the probability of(More)