Helena C. Kraemer

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Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) not only are the gold standard for evaluating the efficacy and effectiveness of psychiatric treatments but also can be valuable in revealing moderators and mediators of therapeutic change. Conceptually, moderators identify on whom and under what circumstances treatments have different effects. Mediators identify why and how(More)
OBJECTIVE The lack of an accepted standard for measuring cognitive change in schizophrenia has been a major obstacle to regulatory approval of cognition-enhancing treatments. A primary mandate of the National Institute of Mental Health's Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative was to develop a consensus(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop a categorical outcome measure related to clinical decisions and to perform secondary analyses to supplement the primary analyses of the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA). METHOD End-of-treatment status was summarized by averaging the parent and(More)
Terms such as risk, risk factors, and especially the term cause are inconsistently and imprecisely used, fostering scientific miscommunication and misleading research and policy. Clarifying such terms is the essential first step. We define risk and a risk factor (protective factor) and their potency, set out the conceptual basis of the methods by which risk(More)
The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating(More)
OBJECTIVE When there exists no single source of information (informant) to validly measure a characteristic, it is typically recommended that data from multiple informants be used. In psychiatric assessment and research, however, multiple informants often provide discordant data, which further confuse the measurement. Strategies such as arbitrarily choosing(More)
The effect of psychosocial intervention on time of survival of 86 patients with metastatic breast cancer was studied prospectively. The 1 year intervention consisted of weekly supportive group therapy with self-hypnosis for pain. Both the treatment (n = 50) and control groups (n = 36) had routine oncological care. At 10 year follow-up, only 3 of the(More)
In randomized clinical trails (RCTs), effect sizes seen in earlier studies guide both the choice of the effect size that sets the appropriate threshold of clinical significance and the rationale to believe that the true effect size is above that threshold worth pursuing in an RCT. That threshold is used to determine the necessary sample size for the(More)
BACKGROUND : Abnormal circadian rhythms have been observed in patients with cancer, but the prognostic value of such alterations has not been confirmed. We examined the association between diurnal variation of salivary cortisol in patients with metastatic breast cancer and subsequent survival. We explored relationships between cortisol rhythms, circulating(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant treatment on hippocampal volumes in patients with major depression. METHOD For 38 female outpatients, the total time each had been in a depressive episode was divided into days during which the patient was receiving antidepressant medication and days during which no(More)