Helen Yakhnin

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Csr (carbon storage regulation) of Escherichia coli is a global regulatory system that consists of CsrA, a homodimeric RNA binding protein, two noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs; CsrB and CsrC) that function as CsrA antagonists by sequestering this protein, and CsrD, a specificity factor that targets CsrB and CsrC for degradation by RNase E. CsrA inhibits(More)
Csr is a conserved global regulatory system that controls expression of several hundred Escherichia coli genes. CsrA protein represses translation of numerous genes by binding to mRNA and inhibiting ribosome access. CsrA also activates gene expression, although an activation mechanism has not been reported. CsrA activates flhDC expression, encoding the(More)
CsrA is a widely distributed RNA binding protein that regulates translation initiation and/or mRNA stability of target transcripts. CsrA activity is antagonized by sRNA(s) containing multiple CsrA binding sites in several Gram-negative bacterial species. Here we discover FliW, the first protein antagonist of CsrA activity that constitutes a partner(More)
NusA and NusG are transcription elongation factors that bind to RNA polymerase (RNAP) after sigma subunit release. Escherichia coli NusA (NusA(Ec)) stimulates intrinsic termination and RNAP(Ec) pausing, whereas NusG(Ec) promotes Rho-dependent termination and pause escape. Both Nus factors also participate in the formation of RNAP(Ec) antitermination(More)
The global regulatory Csr (carbon storage regulator) and the homologous Rsm (repressor of secondary metabolites) systems of Gram-negative bacteria typically consist of an RNA-binding protein (CsrA/RsmA) and at least one sRNA that functions as a CsrA antagonist. CsrA modulates gene expression post-transcriptionally by regulating translation initiation and/or(More)
CsrA of Escherichia coli is an RNA-binding protein that globally regulates gene expression by repressing translation and/or altering the stability of target transcripts. Here we explored mechanisms that control csrA expression. Four CsrA binding sites were predicted upstream of the csrA initiation codon, one of which overlapped its Shine-Dalgarno sequence.(More)
The RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA) represses biofilm formation in several proteobacterial species. In Escherichia coli, it represses the production of the polysaccharide adhesin poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) by binding to the pgaABCD mRNA leader, inhibiting pgaA translation, and destabilizing this transcript. In addition, CsrA represses genes(More)
Riboswitches are cis-acting mRNA elements that regulate gene expression in response to ligand binding. Recently, a class of riboswitches was proposed to respond to the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), which serves as a redox center for metabolic enzymes. The 5' leader of the Escherichia coli moaABCDE transcript exemplifies this candidate riboswitch class. This(More)
RNA polymerase (RNAP) pause sites have been identified in several prokaryotic genes. Although the presumed biological function of RNAP pausing is to allow synchronization of RNAP position with regulatory factor binding and/or RNA folding, a direct causal link between pausing and changes in gene expression has been difficult to establish. RNAP pauses at two(More)
Expression of the Bacillus subtilis tryptophan biosynthetic genes (trpEDCFBA and pabA [trpG]) is regulated in response to tryptophan by TRAP, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein. TRAP-mediated regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes includes a transcription attenuation and two distinct translation control mechanisms. TRAP also regulates(More)