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OBJECTIVE This study tested whether forming implementation intentions is an effective strategy for attaining health goals focused on trying to avoid a negative state. DESIGN Participants chose to either eat more healthy snacks (i.e., an approach goal) or eat fewer unhealthy snacks (i.e., an avoidance goal) over two weeks and were randomly assigned to(More)
BACKGROUND Internet-based cancer risk assessment tools have the potential to inform the public about cancer risk and promote risk-reducing behaviors. However, poorly communicated information on these websites may result in unintended adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE This study examined whether: (1) Internet-based cancer risk assessment tools use risk(More)
Numerous studies in man and animals suggest that beta-adrenergic receptors stimulate pancreatic polypeptide (PP) release whereas alpha-adrenergic receptors inhibit PP release. This study was undertaken to further clarify the role of the adrenergic nervous system in regulating PP release. We evaluated the effects of stellatectomy and celiacectomy on resting(More)
In two studies, we examined the role of perceived fulfillment of parental expectations in the subjective well-being of college students. In Study 1, we found that American college students reported having higher levels of life satisfaction and self-esteem than did Japanese college students. American college students also reported having fulfilled parental(More)
Evidence-based strategies to enable, encourage, and support cancer prevention information seeking among Hispanic populations are needed. We examined cancer prevention information requests to the Cancer Information Service (CIS) via telephone (1-800-4-CANCER toll-free telephone information service) and LiveHelp (an instant messaging service provided in(More)
PURPOSE Under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, all promotional materials for prescription drugs must strike a fair balance in presentation of risks and benefits. How to best present this information is not clear. We sought to determine if the presentation of quantitative risk and benefit information in drug advertising and labeling influences consumers',(More)
This study examined how Internet-based cancer risk calculators presented individualized risk estimates to the public. The 47 calculators varied in their use of empirically-supported risk communication strategies. The type of organization responsible for the website (government, cancer center, etc) was associated with differential use of risk communication(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether presenting prescription drug efficacy information in direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising helps individuals accurately report a drug's benefits and, if so, which numerical format is most helpful. METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled study of individuals diagnosed with high cholesterol (n=2807) who viewed fictitious(More)
INTRODUCTION The Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer) and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors. (More)
BACKGROUND US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations state that any prescription drug promotion that presents drug benefits to consumers must also disclose certain information about the drug's risks in a similar manner. Nearly three-quarters of all US mobile phone subscribers use a smartphone, and over half report receiving mobile advertisements on(More)