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Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI)(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder is a common and disabling illness and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite aggressive medical, behavioral, and electroconvulsive therapies, a significant number of patients remain refractory to treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proven efficacy in neurobehavioral disorders and, in a general(More)
Connectivity analyses and computational modeling of human brain function from fMRI data frequently require the specification of regions of interests (ROIs). Several analyses have relied on atlases derived from anatomical or cyto-architectonic boundaries to specify these ROIs, yet the suitability of atlases for resting state functional connectivity (FC)(More)
While characterization of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying major depression is a fundamental aim of neuroscience research, an equally critical clinical goal is to identify biomarkers that might improve diagnostic accuracy and guide treatment selection for individual patients. To this end, a synthesis of functional neuroimaging studies examining regional(More)
Recent decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the neuroscience of emotion, learning and memory, and in animal models for understanding depression and anxiety. This review focuses on new rationally designed psychiatric treatments derived from preclinical human and animal studies. Nonpharmacological treatments that affect disrupted emotion circuits(More)
The application of multivoxel pattern analysis methods has attracted increasing attention, particularly for brain state prediction and real-time functional MRI applications. Support vector classification is the most popular of these techniques, owing to reports that it has better prediction accuracy and is less sensitive to noise. Support vector(More)
BACKGROUND A preliminary report in six patients suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) may provide benefit in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We now report the results of these and an additional 14 patients with extended follow-up. METHODS Twenty patients with TRD underwent serial assessments before and(More)
The structural and functional organization of the human cingulate cortex is an ongoing focus; however, human imaging studies continue to use the century-old Brodmann concept of a two region cingulate cortex. Recently, a four-region neurobiological model was proposed based on structural, circuitry, and functional imaging observations. It encompasses the(More)
Brain regions modulated by cognitive tasks during emotional processing were investigated using fMRI. Participants performed indirect and direct emotional processing tasks on positive and negative faces and pictures. We used a multivariate technique, partial least squares (PLS) to determine spatially distributed patterns of brain activity associated with(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate white matter (SCCWM) is an experimental therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The specific axonal pathways that mediate the anti-depressant effects of DBS remain unknown. Patient-specific tractography-activation models (TAMs) are a new tool to help identify pathways modulated by DBS. TAMs(More)