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PURPOSE Melanoma-associated germ-line mutations affecting the tumor suppressor and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, CDKN2A/p16(INK4a) have been identified in >100 melanoma-prone families. To predict the melanoma risk for carriers of specific mutations, it is useful to test the function of the mutant proteins in biochemical assays; however, it is(More)
Induction of senescence permanently restricts cellular proliferation after oncogenic stimulation thereby acting as a potent barrier to tumor development. The relevant effector proteins may therefore be fundamental to cancer development. A recent study identified IGFBP7 as a secreted factor mediating melanocyte senescence induced by oncogenic B-RAF, which is(More)
Repeat tumor biopsies to study genomic changes during therapy are difficult, invasive and data are confounded by tumoral heterogeneity. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can provide a non-invasive approach to assess prognosis and the genetic evolution of tumors in response to therapy. Mutation-specific droplet digital PCR was used to measure(More)
UNLABELLED Deregulated glucose metabolism fulfills the energetic and biosynthetic requirements for tumor growth driven by oncogenes. Because inhibition of oncogenic BRAF causes profound reductions in glucose uptake and a strong clinical benefit in BRAF-mutant melanoma, we examined the role of energy metabolism in responses to BRAF inhibition. We observed(More)
Inherited mutations affecting the INK4a/ARF locus (CDKN2A) are associated with melanoma susceptibility in 40% of multiple case melanoma families. Over 60 different germline INK4a/ARF mutations have been detected in more than 190 families worldwide. The majority of these alterations are missense mutations affecting p16(INK4a), and only 25% of these have been(More)
BRAF and MEK inhibitors, alone or in combination, are highly active in the 40% of patients with BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma. Despite this activity resistance often develops in patients treated with these agents. This review summarises the biology of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, with particular reference to the effects of BRAF and(More)
Activated oncogenes restrict cell proliferation and transformation by triggering a DNA damage-dependent senescence checkpoint in response to DNA hyper-replication. Here, we show that loss of the p16(INK) (4a) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and melanoma tumour suppressor facilitates a DNA damage response after a hyper-replicative phase in(More)
Mutations activating the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit occur commonly in melanomas arising on mucosal membranes and acral skin. Clinical studies have demonstrated that selective inhibition of c-Kit is effective in treating patients with c-Kit mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumors, but c-Kit inhibitor activity has been disappointing in c-Kit mutant(More)
PURPOSE Multiple BRAF inhibitor resistance mechanisms have been described, however, their relative frequency, clinical correlates, and effect on subsequent therapy have not been assessed in patients with metastatic melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fifty-nine BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma metastases from patients treated with dabrafenib or vemurafenib were(More)
The INK4a/ARF locus encodes the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16(INK4a) and the p53 activator, p14ARF. These two proteins have an independent first exon (exon 1alpha and exon 1beta, respectively) but share exons 2 and 3 and are translated in different reading frames. Germline mutations in this locus are associated with melanoma susceptibility in(More)