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PURPOSE Multiple BRAF inhibitor resistance mechanisms have been described, however, their relative frequency, clinical correlates, and effect on subsequent therapy have not been assessed in patients with metastatic melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fifty-nine BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma metastases from patients treated with dabrafenib or vemurafenib were(More)
Induction of senescence permanently restricts cellular proliferation after oncogenic stimulation thereby acting as a potent barrier to tumor development. The relevant effector proteins may therefore be fundamental to cancer development. A recent study identified IGFBP7 as a secreted factor mediating melanocyte senescence induced by oncogenic B-RAF, which is(More)
A procedure based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to classify cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) isolates accurately into two subgroups. Two CMV-specific primers that flank the CMV capsid protein gene were used to amplify a DNA fragment of approximately 870 bp. Restriction enzyme analysis of this fragment produces distinct(More)
UNLABELLED Deregulated glucose metabolism fulfills the energetic and biosynthetic requirements for tumor growth driven by oncogenes. Because inhibition of oncogenic BRAF causes profound reductions in glucose uptake and a strong clinical benefit in BRAF-mutant melanoma, we examined the role of energy metabolism in responses to BRAF inhibition. We observed(More)
About half of all melanomas harbor a mutation that results in a constitutively active BRAF kinase mutant (BRAF(V600E/K)) that can be selectively inhibited by targeted BRAF inhibitors (BRAFis). While patients treated with BRAFis initially exhibit measurable clinical improvement, the majority of patients eventually develop drug resistance and relapse. Here,(More)
Approximately 50% of melanomas require oncogenic B-RAF(V600E) signaling for proliferation, survival, and metastasis, and the use of highly selective B-RAF inhibitors has yielded remarkable, although short-term, clinical responses. Reactivation of signaling downstream of B-RAF is frequently associated with acquired resistance to B-RAF inhibitors, and the(More)
The ARF tumour suppressor is a product of the INK4a/ARF locus; a sequence that is frequently altered in human cancer. ARF is upregulated by oncogenic stimuli and is a critical regulator of p53 stability through interactions with the mdm2 and ARF-BP1/Mule ubiquitin ligases. Cellular stress signals liberate ARF from the nucleolus where it is bound to(More)
Monoclonal antibodies against immune checkpoint blockade have proven to be a major success in the treatment of melanoma. The programmed death receptor-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on melanoma cells is believed to have an inhibitory effect on T cell responses and to be an important escape mechanism from immune attack. Previous studies have shown that PD-L1(More)
Aberrant activation of the BRAF kinase occurs in ∼60% of melanomas, and although BRAF inhibitors have shown significant early clinical success, acquired resistance occurs in most patients. Resistance to chronic BRAF inhibition often involves reactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and the combined targeting of BRAF and its(More)
Metabolic heterogeneity is a key factor in cancer pathogenesis. We found that a subset of BRAF- and NRAS-mutant human melanomas resistant to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib displayed increased oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) mediated by the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α. Notably, all selumetinib-resistant cells with elevated OxPhos could be(More)