Helen Rizos

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Oncogene-induced senescence acts as a barrier against tumour formation and has been implicated as the mechanism preventing the transformation of benign melanocytic lesions that frequently harbour oncogenic B-RAF or N-RAS mutations. In the present study we systematically assessed the relative importance of the tumour suppressor proteins p53, p21(Waf1), pRb(More)
HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to(More)
Bim is known to be critical in killing of melanoma cells by inhibition of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. However, the potential role of the most potent apoptosis-inducing isoform of Bim, Bim(S), remains largely unappreciated. Here, we show that inhibition of the mutant B-RAF(V600E) triggers preferential splicing to produce Bim(S), which is particularly important(More)
BACKGROUND Metastatic melanoma represents a major clinical problem. Its incidence continues to rise in western countries and there are currently no curative treatments. While mutation of the P53 tumour suppressor gene is a common feature of many types of cancer, mutational inactivation of P53 in melanoma is uncommon; however, its function often appears(More)
Monoclonal antibodies against immune checkpoint blockade have proven to be a major success in the treatment of melanoma. The programmed death receptor-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on melanoma cells is believed to have an inhibitory effect on T cell responses and to be an important escape mechanism from immune attack. Previous studies have shown that PD-L1(More)
BACKGROUND CDKN2A/p16INK4a is frequently altered in human cancers and it is the most important melanoma susceptibility gene identified to date. p16INK4a inhibits pRb phosphorylation and induces cell cycle arrest, which is considered its main tumour suppressor function. Nevertheless, additional activities may contribute to the tumour suppressor role of(More)
Induction of senescence permanently restricts cellular proliferation after oncogenic stimulation thereby acting as a potent barrier to tumor development. The relevant effector proteins may therefore be fundamental to cancer development. A recent study identified IGFBP7 as a secreted factor mediating melanocyte senescence induced by oncogenic B-RAF, which is(More)
Approximately 50% of melanomas require oncogenic B-RAF(V600E) signaling for proliferation, survival, and metastasis, and the use of highly selective B-RAF inhibitors has yielded remarkable, although short-term, clinical responses. Reactivation of signaling downstream of B-RAF is frequently associated with acquired resistance to B-RAF inhibitors, and the(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is poorly understood. To date, detailed proteomic fingerprinting directly from autopsied brain tissues of HAD and HIV non-dementia patients has not been performed. RESULT Here, we have analyzed total proteins from the frontal cortex of 9 HAD and 5 HIV non-dementia patients. Using 2-Dimensional(More)
Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases can terminate downstream signalling of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; however, their biological role in the pathogenesis of cancer is controversial. Here we report that the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase, has a tumour suppressive role in melanoma. Although it is(More)