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The bacterial toxin pneumolysin is released as a soluble monomer that kills target cells by assembling into large oligomeric rings and forming pores in cholesterol-containing membranes. Using cryo-EM and image processing, we have determined the structures of membrane-surface bound (prepore) and inserted-pore oligomer forms, providing a direct observation of(More)
The chaperonin GroEL drives its protein-folding cycle by cooperatively binding ATP to one of its two rings, priming that ring to become folding-active upon GroES binding, while simultaneously discharging the previous folding chamber from the opposite ring. The GroEL-ATP structure, determined by cryo-EM and atomic structure fitting, shows that the(More)
The chaperonin GroEL is a large, double-ring structure that, together with ATP and the cochaperonin GroES, assists protein folding in vivo. GroES forms an asymmetric complex with GroEL in which a single GroES ring binds one end of the GroEL cylinder. Cross-linking studies reveal that polypeptide binding occurs exclusively to the GroEL ring not occupied by(More)
The double-ring chaperonin GroEL mediates protein folding in the central cavity of a ring bound by ATP and GroES, but it is unclear how GroEL cycles from one folding-active complex to the next. We observe that hydrolysis of ATP within the cis ring must occur before either nonnative polypeptide or GroES can bind to the trans ring, and this is associated with(More)
Protein folding mediated by the molecular chaperone GroEL occurs by its binding to non-native polypeptide substrates and is driven by ATP hydrolysis. Both of these processes are influenced by the reversible association of the co-protein, GroES (refs 2-4). GroEL and other chaperonin 60 molecules are large, cylindrical oligomers consisting of two stacked(More)
Prion propagation involves the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a disease-specific isomer, PrPSc, shifting from a predominantly alpha-helical to beta-sheet structure. Here, conditions were established in which recombinant human PrP could switch between the native alpha conformation, characteristic of PrPC, and a compact, highly soluble,(More)
All organisms have to monitor the folding state of cellular proteins precisely. The heat-shock protein DegP is a protein quality control factor in the bacterial envelope that is involved in eliminating misfolded proteins and in the biogenesis of outer-membrane proteins. Here we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulated protease and(More)
The hexameric AAA+ chaperone ClpB reactivates aggregated proteins in cooperation with the Hsp70 system. Essential for disaggregation, the ClpB middle domain (MD) is a coiled-coil propeller that binds Hsp70. Although the ClpB subunit structure is known, positioning of the MD in the hexamer and its mechanism of action are unclear. We obtained electron(More)
The chaperonin GroEL assists protein folding through ATP-dependent, cooperative movements that alternately create folding chambers in its two rings. The substitution E461K at the interface between these two rings causes temperature-sensitive, defective protein folding in Escherichia coli. To understand the molecular defect, we have examined the mutant(More)