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Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA in marine mussels (Mytiloida), freshwater mussels (Unionoida), and marine clams (Veneroida) is the only known exception to the general rule of strict maternal transmission of mtDNA in animals. DUI is characterized by the presence of gender-associated mitochondrial DNA lineages that are inherited(More)
BACKGROUND Birds have smaller average genome sizes than other tetrapod classes, and it has been proposed that a relatively low frequency of repeating DNA is one factor in reduction of avian genome sizes. RESULTS DNA repeat arrays in the sequenced portion of the chicken (Gallus gallus) autosomes were quantified and compared with those in human autosomes.(More)
Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein that is encoded by a multigene family. It is generally believed that this gene family is subject to concerted evolution, which homogenizes the member genes of the family. However, protein homogeneity can be attained also by strong purifying selection. We therefore studied the proportion (p(S)) of synonymous nucleotide(More)
BACKGROUND The transmission of information about the photic environment to the circadian clock involves a complex array of neurotransmitters, receptors, and second messenger systems. Exposure of an animal to light during the subjective night initiates rapid transcription of a number of immediate-early genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the(More)
Oxygen homeostasis is crucial for development, survival and normal function of all metazoans. A family of transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) is critical in mediating the adaptive responses to reduced oxygen availability. The HIF transcription factor consists of a constitutively expressed β subunit and an oxygen-dependent α subunit;(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene family that mediates the host immune response by helping T lymphocytes to recognize and respond to foreign antigens. The high degree of polymorphism and a quick turnover of the genetic loci make the evolution of MHC genes an intriguing subject of study. To understand the evolutionary pattern of this(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences from the families Trypanosomatidae and Bodonidae (Eugelenozoa: Kinetoplastida) was conducted using a variety of methods. Unlike previous analyses using unrooted trees and/or smaller numbers of sequences, the analysis did not support monophyly of the genus Trypanosoma, which includes the major human parasites T.(More)
Phylogenetic analyses of the family Trypanosomatidae have been conducted using both 18S rRNA gene sequences and a variety of protein sequences. Using a variety of phylogenetic methods, 18S rRNA phylogenies indicate that the genus Trypanosoma is not monophyletic. Rather, they suggest that the American and African trypanosomes constitute distinct clades. By(More)
Mitochondrial (mt) function depends critically on optimal interactions between components encoded by mt and nuclear DNAs. mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance (SMI) is thought to have evolved in animal species to maintain mito-nuclear complementarity by preventing the spread of selfish mt elements thus typically rendering mtDNA heteroplasmy evolutionarily(More)
BACKGROUND Bidirectional promoters are shared regulatory regions that influence the expression of two oppositely oriented genes. This type of regulatory architecture is found more frequently than expected by chance in the human genome, yet many specifics underlying the regulatory design are unknown. Given that the function of most orthologous genes is(More)