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BACKGROUND The transmission of information about the photic environment to the circadian clock involves a complex array of neurotransmitters, receptors, and second messenger systems. Exposure of an animal to light during the subjective night initiates rapid transcription of a number of immediate-early genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the(More)
BACKGROUND Birds have smaller average genome sizes than other tetrapod classes, and it has been proposed that a relatively low frequency of repeating DNA is one factor in reduction of avian genome sizes. RESULTS DNA repeat arrays in the sequenced portion of the chicken (Gallus gallus) autosomes were quantified and compared with those in human autosomes.(More)
BACKGROUND Bidirectional promoters are shared regulatory regions that influence the expression of two oppositely oriented genes. This type of regulatory architecture is found more frequently than expected by chance in the human genome, yet many specifics underlying the regulatory design are unknown. Given that the function of most orthologous genes is(More)
Mitochondrial (mt) function depends critically on optimal interactions between components encoded by mt and nuclear DNAs. mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance (SMI) is thought to have evolved in animal species to maintain mito-nuclear complementarity by preventing the spread of selfish mt elements thus typically rendering mtDNA heteroplasmy evolutionarily(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of alpha chains of voltage-gated ion channels revealed that extensive gene duplication has occurred among both Ca(2+) and Na(+)-channels since the origin of vertebrates. Rather than showing a pattern of gene duplication consistent with the hypothesis of polyploidization early in vertebrate history, both Ca(2+) and Na(+) channels showed(More)
BACKGROUND Gene expression analyses have led to a better understanding of growth control of prostate cancer cells. We and others have identified the presence of several zinc finger transcription factors in the neoplastic prostate, suggesting a potential role for these genes in the regulation of the prostate cancer transcriptome. One of the transcription(More)
In some species, histone gene clusters consist of tandem arrays of each type of histone gene, whereas in other species the genes may be clustered but not arranged in tandem. In certain species, however, histone genes are found scattered across several different chromosomes. This study examines the evolution of histone 3 (H3) genes that are not arranged in(More)
Histones are small basic proteins encoded by a multigene family and are responsible for the nucleosomal organization of chromatin in eukaryotes. Because of the high degree of protein sequence conservation, it is generally believed that histone genes are subject to concerted evolution. However, purifying selection can also generate a high degree of sequence(More)
BACKGROUND It is generally accepted that CD8+ T cell responses play an important role in control of immunodeficiency virus replication. The association of HLA-B27 and -B57 with control of viremia supports this conclusion. However, specific correlates of viral control in individuals expressing these alleles have been difficult to define. We recently reported(More)