Helen P Malmo

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Electromyographic (EMG) voltage that rises continuously during motor performance or mental activity and falls precipitately at the end is known as an EMG gradient. Our review is based on 55 studies of EMG gradients, which were published during the period 1937-1994. The extremely wide diversity of situations yielding EMG gradients suggests the possibility(More)
In 16 rats multiple unit activity was recorded simultaneously from ventral forebrain and dorsal midbrain areas, with continuous monitoring by sensitive head movement and body movement recorders, along with careful observations of ongoing behaviors. Both forebrain and midbrain multiple unit activity were significantly correlated with head and body movements:(More)
We report the results of a series of experiments whose main objectives are: (a) the identification of neural receptors for thirst; and (b) other neural structures of critical importance for thirst and drinking behavior. We have used results from hypertonic challenges during acute unit and multiple-unit recording experiments to identify responsive brain(More)
Under urethane anesthesia multiple unit activity (MUA) recordings were taken from medial and lateral preoptic and anterior hypothalamic sites in 21 rats during multiple dose intracerebroventricular (i.vt.) injections of angiotensin II (AII), using artificial CSF as control. Olfactory stimuli were also presented. Whilst lateral sites on average were(More)
Longitudinal multiple unit activity (MUA) recordings of excellent quality over time periods as long as 26 months are described. The validity of the method was demonstrated by showing persistence of specific and idiosyncratic MUA responses to controlled sensory stimulation over these long time periods. This longitudinal MUA method was used to study level of(More)