Helen M Shulver

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BACKGROUND Episiotomy during childbirth, intended to protect the anal sphincter, may fail to do so. Furthermore damage to the anal sphincter complex may occur without complete perineal tear. We hypothesise that these particular injuries may occur due to posterior displacement of the anus leading to distraction of the anal sphincter complex from an anterior(More)
In the management of women with any but the earliest vulval carcinoma, the received surgical dogma is that there should be complete removal of all potentially involved lymph nodes in the groin (distal to the inguinal ligament). Traditionally, this has included stripping bare the femoral vessels after unroofing the deep fascia in the proximal thigh (Hunter's(More)
A method of intact postmortem removal of the pelvic floor for imaging correlation studies, with minimal access disfigurement, is described. This consists of subcutaneous removal of both ischiopubic rami with division of the obturator membrane cranial to the origin of the levator ani muscles. The anatomical relationships of soft tissue surrounding the distal(More)
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