Helen M Camakaris

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Haloarchaea are the dominant microbial flora in hypersaline waters with near-saturating salt levels. The haloarchaeal diversity of an Australian saltern crystallizer pond was examined by use of a library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and by cultivation. High viable counts (10(6) CFU/ml) were obtained on solid media. Long incubation times (> or =8 weeks)(More)
The TyrR protein of Escherichia coli can act both as a repressor and as an activator of transcription. It can interact with each of the three aromatic amino acids, with ATP and, under certain circumstances, with the C-terminal region of the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase. TyrR protein is a dimer in solution but in the presence of tyrosine and ATP it(More)
The square haloarchaea of Walsby (SHOW group) dominate hypersaline microbial communities but have not been cultured since their discovery 25 years ago. We show that natural water dilution cultures can be used to isolate members of this group and, once in pure culture, they can be grown in standard halobacterial media. Cells display a square morphology and(More)
The tyrP gene of Escherichia coli encodes a tyrosine specific transporter. Its synthesis is repressed by tyrosine but is activated by phenylalanine and to a lesser extent by tryptophan. Both of these effects are mediated by the TyrR protein when it binds to one or both of its cognate binding sites (TyrR boxes) which encompass nucleotides -30 to -75.(More)
To examine the role of the amino acid residues (between positions 258 and 275 and positions 297 and 298) of the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase in TyrR-mediated activation of the mtr promoter, we have carried out in vitro transcription experiments using a set of mutant RNA polymerases with a supercoiled mtr template. Decreases in factor-independent(More)
In Escherichia coli K-12, the shiA gene is involved in the uptake of shikimate. This gene has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. The gene is predicted to encode a protein of 438 amino acids and lies adjacent to the amn gene. The hydropathy profile and the amino acid sequence indicate that the ShiA protein is a polytopic membrane protein(More)
In order to understand the mechanism by which the TyrR protein activates transcription from the mtr and tyrP+3 promoters, we have carried out in vitro transcription experiments with supercoiled DNA templates. We have shown that addition of the histone-like protein HU or integration host factor (IHF) greatly inhibited the transcription from the mtr and(More)
The mechanism of repression of the tyrB promoter by TyrR protein has been studied in vivo and in vitro. In tyrR+ strains, transcription of tyrB is repressed by either tyrosine or phenylalanine. Both of the TyrR binding sites (strong and weak TyrR boxes) lie downstream of the tyrB transcription start site and are required for tyrosine- or(More)
Strains of Escherichia coli K-12 in which the transcription of lacZ is initiated from the tyrR promoter have been constructed by use of the Mu d (Apr lac) phage of Casadaban and Cohen (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:4530-4533, 1979). These strains have been used to examine the regulation of expression from the tyrR promoter, with the synthesis of(More)
Synthesis of five of the enzymes of the common pathway of aromatic biosynthesis has been shown to be unaffected by either the aromatic amino acids--the product of the first reaction (3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonic acid-7-phosphate) or the product of the last reaction (chorismate)--or by the state of regulator gene loci tyrR. On the other hand, the rate of(More)