Helen L. Williams

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Epidemiologic studies establish a relationship between nicotine use by adolescents and a subsequent involvement with drugs of abuse in adulthood. Recent research implicates the periadolescent period as a crucial time in development, during which nicotine use produces persistent adaptations that serve to predispose an individual to substance use. The present(More)
In a dual-modality paradigm, visual and auditory event-related potentials were elicited in 40 alcoholic men and 30 controls, equated with the alcoholics on age and education. Half of each group had first-degree relatives who were alcoholic (family history positive). The amplitude of the visual N1 component was reduced among the alcoholics, but their(More)
INTRODUCTION Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting social interaction and communication. Recently, there has been interest in whether people with ASD also show memory deficits as a result of abnormal brain development. However, at least in adolescents with ASD, the recollection component of episodic memory has(More)
Gepirone (BMY 13805), a buspirone analog, was used to determine the antianxiety mechanism of the arylpiperazine class of drugs. Because of the weak effects of these drugs on conflict behavior, isolation-induced aggressive mice were used as the antianxiety model. Gepirone, like buspirone, potently inhibited attacks against group housed intruder mice (ED50 =(More)
Somnograms obtained from recently abstinent chronic alcoholics reveal gross disruption succinctly described as "fractured" sleep. Sleep onset is delayed and the rhythmic properties of the sleep pattern are markedly disturbed with numerous brief arousals and changes of sleep stage. Excessive stage 1 and stage rapid eye movement sleep are present while the(More)
The form of the average evoked response to clicks is highly correlated with the background electroencephalogram. However, the response during the emergent low-voltage "dreaming" stage is different from that seen during the low-voltage phase at the beginning of sleep. The results provide additional evidence that the emergent low-voltage stage is a(More)
AIMS To compare the effect of an antagonist of the mGlu5 glutamate receptor, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) on a test for anxiety and on the volitional consumption of ethanol. METHODS The test for anxiety was placement of a Sprague-Dawley rat for a 5 min observation period in an elevated plus-maze. Volitional consumption of ethanol in a(More)