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There is renewed interest in the relationship between early childhood trauma and risk of psychosis in adulthood. There are a large number of studies of psychiatric inpatients, and of outpatients in which a majority have a psychotic disorder, that suggest the prevalence of childhood trauma in these populations is high. However, these are generally small(More)
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the mechanisms leading to this are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stress and antipsychotic treatment on diurnal cortisol levels, and on cortisol awakening response, in FEP. Recent stressful events, perceived(More)
The Nottingham Onset Schedule (NOS) is a short, guided interview and rating schedule to measure onset in psychosis. Onset is defined as the time between the first reported/observed change in mental state/behaviour to the development of psychotic symptoms. Onset is conceptualised as comprising of (i) a prodrome of two parts: a period of 'unease' followed by(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood psychotic symptoms have been used as a subclinical phenotype of schizophrenia in etiological research and as a target for preventative interventions. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the specificity of these symptoms for schizophrenia, suggesting alternative outcomes such as anxiety and depression. Using a prospective(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a(More)
While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and(More)
OBJECTIVES To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. DESIGN The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study of a nationally representative UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs born in 1994-95 (2232(More)
OBJECTIVE Using longitudinal and prospective measures of trauma during childhood, the authors assessed the risk of developing psychotic symptoms associated with maltreatment, bullying, and accidents in a nationally representative U.K. cohort of young twins. METHOD Data were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, which follows 2,232 twin(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate the prevalence and social correlates of psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of Black and White British subjects. METHOD Data were collected from randomly selected community control subjects, recruited as part of the AESOP study, a three-centre population based study of first-episode psychosis. (More)