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First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the mechanisms leading to this are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stress and antipsychotic treatment on diurnal cortisol levels, and on cortisol awakening response, in FEP. Recent stressful events, perceived(More)
There is renewed interest in the relationship between early childhood trauma and risk of psychosis in adulthood. There are a large number of studies of psychiatric inpatients, and of outpatients in which a majority have a psychotic disorder, that suggest the prevalence of childhood trauma in these populations is high. However, these are generally small(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a(More)
The Nottingham Onset Schedule (NOS) is a short, guided interview and rating schedule to measure onset in psychosis. Onset is defined as the time between the first reported/observed change in mental state/behaviour to the development of psychotic symptoms. Onset is conceptualised as comprising of (i) a prodrome of two parts: a period of 'unease' followed by(More)
OBJECTIVES To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. DESIGN The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study of a nationally representative UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs born in 1994-95 (2232(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood psychotic symptoms have been used as a subclinical phenotype of schizophrenia in etiological research and as a target for preventative interventions. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the specificity of these symptoms for schizophrenia, suggesting alternative outcomes such as anxiety and depression. Using a prospective(More)
OBJECTIVE Using longitudinal and prospective measures of trauma during childhood, the authors assessed the risk of developing psychotic symptoms associated with maltreatment, bullying, and accidents in a nationally representative U.K. cohort of young twins. METHOD Data were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, which follows 2,232 twin(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite the widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid stage to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after illness onset. The authors examined whether neuropsychological decline is unique(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories. AIMS To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention(More)
This study examined affective and psychological routes from childhood maltreatment to increased paranoia in adulthood. Recent anxiety and negative beliefs about the self partially accounted for the associations between emotional or physical abuse and paranoia. However, as full mediation did not occur, other psychological, social and biological pathways(More)