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Both proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) and angiotensin II have been shown to produce a depression in protein synthesis in murine myotubes concomitant with an increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). Both PIF and angiotensin II were shown to induce autophosphorylation of the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), and an inhibitor(More)
To investigate the mechanism by which beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates the depression of protein synthesis in the skeletal muscle of cachectic mice, a study has been carried out in murine myotubes in the presence of proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). PIF inhibited protein synthesis by 50% within 4 h, and this was effectively attenuated by(More)
Both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and angiotensin II (ANG II) induced an increase in total protein degradation in murine myotubes, which was completely attenuated by treatment with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB; 50 microM). There was an increase in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 30 min, as(More)
The antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 1 mM) and D-alpha-tocopherol (10 microM) completely attenuated protein degradation in murine myotubes in response to both proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) and angiotensin II (Ang II), suggesting that the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in this process. Both PIF and Ang II(More)
In the present study, the BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids) leucine and valine caused a significant suppression in the loss of body weight in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour (MAC16), producing a significant increase in skeletal muscle wet weight, through an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in degradation. Leucine attenuated the(More)
beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB; 50 microM) has been shown to attenuate the depression in protein synthesis in murine myotubes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) with or without interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and angiotensin II (ANG II). The mechanism for the depression of protein synthesis by all three(More)
Previous studies suggest that the activation (autophosphorylation) of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) can stimulate protein degradation, and depress protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) on the a-subunit. To understand whether these mediators are important in muscle wasting in cancer(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to attenuate protein degradation in murine myotubes induced by angiotensin II through downregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, although the mechanism is not known. Angiotensin II is known to upregulate this pathway through a cellular signalling mechanism involving release of arachidonic acid,(More)
Inhibition of dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), not only attenuates muscle atrophy in a murine model of cancer cachexia (MAC16), but it also inhibits tumour growth. In vitro the PKR inhibitor maximally inhibited growth of MAC16 tumour cells at a concentration of 200 nM, which was also maximally effective in attenuating phosphorylation of PKR and of(More)
The role of Ca(2+) in the activation of PKR (double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase), which leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, has been investigated in murine myotubes using the cell-permeable Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA/AM (1,2-bis (o-aminphenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxymethyl) ester). BAPTA/AM effectively attenuated both the(More)