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BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is usually a consequence of inflammatory cell activity within the plaque. Current imaging techniques provide anatomic data but no indication of plaque inflammation. The glucose analogue [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) can be used to image inflammatory cell activity non-invasively by PET. In this study we tested(More)
Endothelial dysfunction is an early atherosclerotic event that precedes clinical symptoms and may also render established plaque vulnerable to rupture. Noninvasive assessment of endothelial function is commonly undertaken using the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique. Some studies indicate that FMD possesses independent prognostic value to predict future(More)
BACKGROUND Cold water immersion reduces exercise-induced muscle damage. Benefits may partly arise from a decline in limb blood flow; however, no study has comprehensively investigated the influence of different degrees of cooling undertaken via cold water immersion on limb blood flow responses. PURPOSE To determine the influence of cold (8°C) and cool(More)
PURPOSE Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion (i.e., ischemic preconditioning (IPC)) protect against damage after a myocardial infarction. Recent observational data indicate that IPC improves exercise performance. However, no previous study has examined potential underlying mechanisms for this effect of IPC. Therefore, we examined the potential(More)
Near-surface “effective diffusivities” associated with geostrophic eddies in the Southern Ocean are estimated by numerically monitoring the lengthening of idealized tracer contours as they are strained by surface geostrophic flow observed by satellite altimetry. The resulting surface diffusivities show considerable spatial variability and are large (2000 m(More)
CONTEXT Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may be evident in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), both conditions being associated with obesity and insulin resistance. However, few studies have accounted for the high prevalence of obesity in PCOS. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether PCOS is independently associated with hepatic(More)
Strenuous exercise is associated with an immediate decrease in endothelial function. Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion, known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), is able to protect the endothelium against ischemia-induced injury beyond the ischemic area. We examined the hypothesis that RIPC prevents the decrease in endothelial(More)
In animal models of pulmonary inflammation, neutrophils exhibit a dramatic influx of glucose in periods of high metabolic activity. This information was utilized to develop a technique, involving positron emission tomography (PET) of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG), which measures neutrophil activity in situ. This technique was applied in a(More)
Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery(More)
OBJECTIVE Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) demonstrate an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous researchers have compared flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an early marker of CVD, in women with and without PCOS. Evidence for a PCOS-mediated reduction in FMD remains equivocal, potentially because of study(More)