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Asexual (thelytokous) females of the parasitoid Venturia canescens, which develop inside another insect, exhibit evolutionarily stable mixtures of life-history strategies, allowing two genetically distinct wasp lines to coexist sympatrically on the same host resources. Since the two asexual lines differ in a virus-like particle protein-coding gene (VLP1),(More)
BACKGROUND Declining circulating estrogen levels around the time of the menopause can induce unacceptable symptoms that affect the health and well being of women. Hormone therapy (both unopposed estrogen and estrogen/progestogen combinations) is an effective treatment for these symptoms, but is associated with risk of harms. Guidelines recommend that(More)
BACKGROUND Hormone therapy (HT) is widely used for controlling menopausal symptoms and has also been used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and dementia in older women. This is an updated version of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of long term HT on mortality,(More)
Overexpression of the oncogene HER2/neu (c-erbB-2) occurs in up to 30% of breast cancers and is correlated with reduced survival, especially in node-positive disease. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with the aggressive phenotype of HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells using cDNA microarrays. RNA was extracted from three(More)
BACKGROUND The decline in circulating oestrogen around the time of the menopause often induces unacceptable symptoms that affect the health and well being of women. Hormone replacement therapy (both unopposed oestrogen and oestrogen and progestogen combinations) is an effective treatment for these symptoms. In women with an intact uterus, unopposed(More)
BACKGROUND Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are very common during the menopausal transition. Hormone replacement therapy has traditionally been used as a very effective treatment but concerns over increased risks of some chronic diseases have markedly increased the interest of women in alternatives. Some of the most popular of(More)
BACKGROUND Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are very common during the menopausal transition. Hormone therapy has traditionally been used as a highly effective treatment, but concerns about increased risk of some chronic diseases have markedly increased the interest of women in alternative treatments. Some of the most popular of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if the use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone (DMPA), which reduces ovarian oestrogen production, is associated with changes in bone density. DESIGN Population study. DMPA users were compared with two control groups selected from larger population studies and individually matched for several putative(More)
Patients with long-standing chronic pancreatitis are thought to be at increased risk of developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but the mechanism for this increased risk is unknown. Since increasing evidence supports the notion that infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas arise from pancreatic intraepithelial lesions (PanINs), we sought to(More)
BACKGROUND Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual cramps) is common. Combined OCPs are recommended in the management of primary dysmenorrhoea. OBJECTIVES To determine the effectiveness and safety of combined oral contraceptive pills for the management of primary dysmenorrhoea. SEARCH STRATEGY We conducted electronic searches for randomised controlled trials(More)