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BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND Trend data for causes of child death are crucial to inform priorities for improving child survival by and beyond 2015. We report child mortality by cause estimates in 2000-13, and cause-specific mortality scenarios to 2030 and 2035. METHODS We estimated the distributions of causes of child mortality separately for neonates and children aged(More)
EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomalies of 23.9 per 1,000 births for 2003-2007. 80% were(More)
A small area study of cancer incidence, 1974-1986, near 20 high power television (TV) and frequency modulation (FM) radio transmitters in Great Britain was carried out to place in context the findings of an earlier study around the Sutton Coldfield transmitter. The national database of postcoded cancer registrations was used with population and(More)
This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20(More)
BACKGROUND The use of valproic acid in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of spina bifida, but data on the risks of other congenital malformations are limited. METHODS We first combined data from eight published cohort studies (1565 pregnancies in which the women were exposed to valproic acid, among which 118 major(More)
BACKGROUND Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. AIMS To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). (More)
BACKGROUND Waste-disposal sites are a potential hazard to health. This study is a multicentre case-control study of the risk of congenital anomalies associated with residence near hazardous-waste landfill sites in Europe. METHODS We used data from seven regional registers of congenital anomalies in five countries. We studied 1089 livebirths, stillbirths,(More)
A small area study of cancer incidence in 1974-1986 was carried out to investigate an unconfirmed report of a "cluster" of leukemias and lymphomas near the Sutton Coldfield television (TV) and frequency modulation (FM) radio transmitter in the West Midlands, England. The study used a national database of postcoded cancer registrations, and population and(More)