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It remains uncertain as how the reduction in systemic oxygen transport limits high-intensity exercise tolerance. 11 participants (5 males; age 35 ± 10 years; peak $$ {\dot{V}\text{O}}_{2} \max $$ 3.5 ± 0.4 L min−1) performed cycle ergometry to the limit of tolerance: (1) a ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak $$ {\dot{V}\text{O}}_{2}(More)
Phantom limb pain is an often severe and debilitating phenomenon that has been reported in up to 85% of amputees. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Peripheral and spinal mechanisms are thought to play a role in pain modulation in affected individuals; however central mechanisms are also likely to be of importance. The neuromatrix theory postulates a(More)
The periventricular gray (PVG) matter is an established anatomical target for chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of certain intractable pain syndromes. Data relating to the representation of pain and other somatosensory modalities within the PVG in humans are negligible. We examined the character and location of somatosensory responses(More)
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, xanomeline, attenuates amphetamine-induced activity in WT mice. This effect is abolished in mice lacking the M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(4) mAChR KO) and partially attenuated in mice lacking M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(1) mAChR KO). Collectively, these data suggest that the(More)
Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the periventricular gray (PVG) has been used for the treatment of chronic central pain for decades. In recent years motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has largely supplanted DBS in the surgical management of intractable neuropathic pain of central origin. However, MCS provides satisfactory pain relief in about 50-75% of(More)
Post-herpetic neuralgic affects up to 20% of patients after an attack of trigeminal Herpes Zoster infection. Past medical and surgical treatments have been unrewarding. We report the successful treatment of such a case with deep brain stimulation into the region of the contralateral periventricular grey area (PVG) and ventral posterior lateral thalamic(More)
The aim of this study was to compare maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (hereafter O2 deficit) estimated from the methods of Whipp et al. (1986), Medbo et al. (1988), and Hill et al. (1998) to determine whether they agree sufficiently to be used interchangeably. Nineteen moderately to highly trained endurance runners first performed an incremental test to(More)
OBJECTIVES To set up and evaluate a multidisciplinary suicide assessment training course for "front-line" clinical staff. METHODS We looked at the impact of two types of training courses: full day Workshops with actors role-playing patients; and a half-day Lecture. Outcome measures included the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory Form 2, a reliable and(More)