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Endurance exercise training results in profound adaptations of the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular systems that enhance the delivery of oxygen from the atmosphere to the mitochondria and enable a tighter regulation of muscle metabolism. These adaptations effect an improvement in endurance performance that is manifest as a rightward shift in the(More)
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, xanomeline, attenuates amphetamine-induced activity in WT mice. This effect is abolished in mice lacking the M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(4) mAChR KO) and partially attenuated in mice lacking M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(1) mAChR KO). Collectively, these data suggest that the(More)
It remains uncertain as how the reduction in systemic oxygen transport limits high-intensity exercise tolerance. 11 participants (5 males; age 35 ± 10 years; peak $$ {\dot{V}\text{O}}_{2} \max $$ 3.5 ± 0.4 L min−1) performed cycle ergometry to the limit of tolerance: (1) a ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak $$ {\dot{V}\text{O}}_{2}(More)
Phantom limb pain is an often severe and debilitating phenomenon that has been reported in up to 85% of amputees. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Peripheral and spinal mechanisms are thought to play a role in pain modulation in affected individuals; however central mechanisms are also likely to be of importance. The neuromatrix theory postulates a(More)
The periventricular gray (PVG) matter is an established anatomical target for chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of certain intractable pain syndromes. Data relating to the representation of pain and other somatosensory modalities within the PVG in humans are negligible. We examined the character and location of somatosensory responses(More)
We tested the hypothesis that heavy-exercise phase II oxygen uptake (VO(2)) kinetics could be speeded by prior heavy exercise. Ten subjects performed four protocols involving 6-min exercise bouts on a cycle ergometer separated by 6 min of recovery: 1) moderate followed by moderate exercise; 2) moderate followed by heavy exercise; 3) heavy followed by(More)
Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the periventricular gray (PVG) has been used for the treatment of chronic central pain for decades. In recent years motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has largely supplanted DBS in the surgical management of intractable neuropathic pain of central origin. However, MCS provides satisfactory pain relief in about 50-75% of(More)
Post-herpetic neuralgic affects up to 20% of patients after an attack of trigeminal Herpes Zoster infection. Past medical and surgical treatments have been unrewarding. We report the successful treatment of such a case with deep brain stimulation into the region of the contralateral periventricular grey area (PVG) and ventral posterior lateral thalamic(More)
We hypothesized that a higher pedal rate (assumed to result in a greater proportional contribution of type II motor units) would be associated with an increased amplitude of the O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) slow component during heavy-cycle exercise. Ten subjects (mean +/- SD, age 26 +/- 4 yr, body mass 71.5 +/- 7.9 kg) completed a series of square-wave transitions(More)