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We report a strategy for high through-put sequence analyses of large MHC class II-bound peptide repertoires which combines automated electrospray ionization tandem mass-spectrometry with computer-assisted interpretation of the tandem mass spectra using the algorithm SEQUEST. This powerful approach discerned 128 peptide sequences displayed by the murine MHC(More)
Chondrocyte function is regulated partly by mechanical stimulation. Optimal mechanical stimulation maintains articular cartilage integrity, whereas abnormal mechanical stimulation results in development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The responses of signal transduction pathways in human articular chondrocytes (HAC) to mechanical stimuli remain(More)
DDB2, a gene mutated in XPE patients, is involved in global genomic repair especially the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), and is regulated by p53 in human cells. We show that DDB2 is expressed in mouse tissues and demonstrate, using primary mouse epithelial cells, that mouse DDB2 is regulated by E2F transcription factors. Retinoblastoma(More)
The resolution of acute inflammation requires bulk clearance of extravasated inflammatory cells in an ordered manner. Neutrophils undergo apoptosis and are ingested by macrophages (M psi) via a novel recognition mechanism that fails to provoke proinflammatory responses. Thereafter, the fate of inflammatory M psi themselves remains unclear. We investigated(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, usually arising from a background of chronic inflammatory disease. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced in response to tissue injury, endotoxin exposure or infection and TNF-alpha signalling in hepatocytes is associated with an increase in(More)
High expression of Rac small GTPases in invasive breast ductal carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis, but its therapeutic value in human cancers is not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine the response of human primary breast cancers to Rac-based drug treatments ex vivo. Three-dimensional organotypic cultures were used to assess(More)
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program in which epithelial cells down-regulate their cell-cell junctions, acquire spindle cell morphology and exhibit cellular motility. In human breast cancer, invasion into surrounding tissue is the first step in metastatic progression. Here, we devised an in vitro model using selected(More)
Polyploidisation in hepatocytes has been associated with many physiologic and pathologic processes such as proliferation, metabolism, regeneration, aging, and cancer. We studied gene expression patterns in hepatocytes of different ploidy. Primary hepatocytes were obtained from mice of different ages: young (4-6 weeks old), adult (8-10 weeks old), and older(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish whether chondrocytes from normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage recognize and respond to pressure induced mechanical strain in a similar manner. DESIGN Chondrocytes, extracted from macroscopically normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage obtained from knee joints at autopsy, were grown in monolayer culture(More)