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Stimulation of protective immune responses against intracellular pathogens is difficult to achieve using non-replicating vaccines. BALB/c mice immunized by intramuscular injection with killed Francisella tularensis (live vaccine strain) adjuvanted with preformed immune stimulating complexes admixed with CpG, were protected when systemically challenged with(More)
The Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) domain is an essential component of eukaryotic innate immune signalling pathways. Interaction between TIR domains present in Toll-like receptors and associated adaptors initiates and propagates an immune signalling cascade. Proteins containing TIR domains have also been discovered in bacteria. Studies have(More)
Caf1, a chaperone-usher protein from Yersinia pestis, is a major protective antigen in the development of subunit vaccines against plague. However, recombinant Caf1 forms polymers of indeterminate size. We report the conversion of Caf1 from a polymer to a monomer by circular permutation of the gene. Biophysical evaluation confirmed that the engineered Caf1(More)
The induction and inhibition of the interferon (IFN) response and apoptosis by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been examined. Here we show that prior infection of cells by noncytopathogenic BVDV (ncp BVDV) fails to block transcriptional responses to alpha/beta IFN. In contrast, ncp BVDV-infected cells fail to produce IFN-alpha/beta or MxA in response(More)
The unpredictable nature of bioterrorism and the absence of real-time detection systems have highlighted the need for an efficient postexposure therapy for Bacillus anthracis infection. One approach is passive immunization through the administration of antibodies that mitigate the biological action of anthrax toxin. We isolated and characterized two(More)
Recombinant E(rns) glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) has been tagged with a marker epitope or linked to an immunoglobulin Fc tail and expressed in insect and mammalian cell lines. The product was shown to be functional, both having ribonuclease activity and binding to a variety of cells that were permissive and non-permissive for(More)
Existing licensed anthrax vaccines are administered parenterally and require multiple doses to induce protective immunity. This requires trained personnel and is not the optimum route for stimulating a mucosal immune response. Microencapsulation of vaccine antigens offers a number of advantages over traditional vaccine formulations, including stability(More)
The sub-cellular location and mechanism of membrane association of NS3 and NS2-3 polypeptides of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) have been examined. Both NS3 and NS2-3 proteins were detected in post-nuclear membrane fractions but not in cytosolic fractions of BVDV infected cells; a proportion of NS3, but not NS2-3, could be dissociated from the(More)
Background: Previously, antigens expressed from DNA vaccines have been fused to the VP22 protein from Herpes Simplex Virus type I in order to improve efficacy. However, the immune enhancing mechanism of VP22 is poorly understood and initial suggestions that VP22 can mediate intercellular spread have been questioned. Despite this, fusion of VP22 to antigens(More)
The human immune response to a new recombinant plague vaccine, comprising recombinant F1 (rF1) and rV antigens, has been assessed during a phase 1 safety and immunogenicity trial in healthy volunteers. All the subjects produced specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum after the priming dose, which peaked in value after the booster dose (day 21), with the(More)