Helen C Flick-Smith

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The unpredictable nature of bioterrorism and the absence of real-time detection systems have highlighted the need for an efficient postexposure therapy for Bacillus anthracis infection. One approach is passive immunization through the administration of antibodies that mitigate the biological action of anthrax toxin. We isolated and characterized two(More)
Stimulation of protective immune responses against intracellular pathogens is difficult to achieve using non-replicating vaccines. BALB/c mice immunized by intramuscular injection with killed Francisella tularensis (live vaccine strain) adjuvanted with preformed immune stimulating complexes admixed with CpG, were protected when systemically challenged with(More)
Studies have confirmed the key role of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in the US and UK human anthrax vaccines. However, given the tripartite nature of the toxin, other components, including lethal factor (LF), are also likely to contribute to protection. We examined the antibody and T cell responses to PA and LF in human volunteers immunized(More)
Existing licensed anthrax vaccines are administered parenterally and require multiple doses to induce protective immunity. This requires trained personnel and is not the optimum route for stimulating a mucosal immune response. Microencapsulation of vaccine antigens offers a number of advantages over traditional vaccine formulations, including stability(More)
The human immune response to a new recombinant plague vaccine, comprising recombinant F1 (rF1) and rV antigens, has been assessed during a phase 1 safety and immunogenicity trial in healthy volunteers. All the subjects produced specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum after the priming dose, which peaked in value after the booster dose (day 21), with the(More)
Protective immunity to anthrax can be achieved by antibodies raised against the secreted protective antigen (PA) and this forms the basis of the current acellular vaccines for human use. Bacillus subtilis spores have previously been used for delivery of heterologous antigens by the oral and nasal routes and their intrinsic heat-stability make them(More)
The aims of this investigation were (1) to examine IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) mRNA levels in candidate tissues which might be important sources for blood IGFBP-3 (liver and skin) and in a target tissue for IGF-I action (skeletal muscle), and (2) to examine the effects of a single dose (500 micrograms) of GH or IGF-I on IGFBP-3 message levels in these(More)
Caf1, a chaperone-usher protein from Yersinia pestis, is a major protective antigen in the development of subunit vaccines against plague. However, recombinant Caf1 forms polymers of indeterminate size. We report the conversion of Caf1 from a polymer to a monomer by circular permutation of the gene. Biophysical evaluation confirmed that the engineered Caf1(More)
The induction and inhibition of the interferon (IFN) response and apoptosis by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been examined. Here we show that prior infection of cells by noncytopathogenic BVDV (ncp BVDV) fails to block transcriptional responses to alpha/beta IFN. In contrast, ncp BVDV-infected cells fail to produce IFN-alpha/beta or MxA in response(More)
Recombinant E(rns) glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) has been tagged with a marker epitope or linked to an immunoglobulin Fc tail and expressed in insect and mammalian cell lines. The product was shown to be functional, both having ribonuclease activity and binding to a variety of cells that were permissive and non-permissive for(More)