Helen Borthwick

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There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used(More)
The net rate of mutation to deleterious but nonlethal alleles and the sizes of effects of these mutations are of great significance for many evolutionary questions. Here we describe three replicate experiments in which mutations have been accumulated on chromosome 3 of Drosophila melanogaster by means of single-male backcrosses of heterozygotes for a(More)
Under certain circumstances, X-linked loci are expected to experience more adaptive substitutions than similar autosomal loci. To look for evidence of faster-X evolution, we analyzed the evolutionary rates of coding sequences in two sets of Drosophila species, the melanogaster and pseudoobscura clades, using whole-genome sequences. One of these, the(More)
The extent to which quantitative trait variability is caused by rare alleles maintained by mutation, versus intermediate-frequency alleles maintained by balancing selection, is an unsolved problem of evolutionary genetics. We describe the results of an experiment to examine the effects of selection on the mean and extent of inbreeding depression for early(More)
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