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Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) inhibits fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Its synthesis by fibroblasts is induced by profibrotic mediators including transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1). However, in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, PGE(2) levels are decreased. In this study we examined the effect of TGF-beta(1) on PGE(2) synthesis,(More)
BACKGROUND Previous health economic studies recommend either a dual screening strategy [tuberculin skin test (TST) followed by interferon-gamma-release assay (IGRA)] or a single one [IGRA only] for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), the former largely based on claims that it is more cost-effective. We sought to examine that conclusion through the use of(More)
A variety of pharmacologic, behavioral, and receptor-binding studies were performed in an effort to determine the mechanism and site of action of nicotine on the rat brain. When nicotine was given into the lateral or fourth ventricles or directly into the lateral vestibular nuclei of rats, it produced a characteristic prostration often accompanied by tonic(More)
The performance characteristics of the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) assay (T-SPOT TB) for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals are unknown. Given that ELISPOT enumerates Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-gamma-secreting T cells, HIV-associated immunosuppression might adversely affect test(More)
Tuberculosis is a global public health catastrophe responsible for >8 million cases of illness and 2 million deaths annually. Pulmonary cavitation with cough-generated aerosol is the principle means of spread, and lung remodeling (healed cavitation, fibrosis, and bronchiectasis) is a major cause of lung disability, surpassing all other diffuse parenchymal(More)
BACKGROUND Data about T cell antigen-specific (ESAT-6 and CFP-10) IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs) during and after completion of anti-tuberculous (TB) treatment are limited and highly discordant. Thus, the utility of IGRAs as a surrogate marker of mycobacterial burden remain unclear. METHODS To investigate factors that modulate IGRA responses during(More)
AIM This paper is a report of a study to develop a social outreach model of care, including the role of a link worker in developing collaborative care pathways, for marginalized groups with tuberculosis. BACKGROUND Social risk factors such as homelessness and substance misuse are associated with poor treatment outcomes. Models of interprofessional(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Standard bronchoscopic techniques (transbronchial lung biopsy and endobronchial biopsy) provide a diagnosis in 70% of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Previous data suggest that endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has a high sensitivity in patients with sarcoidosis. The feasibility and(More)
Eosinophilia is a common finding in returning travellers and migrants, and in this group it often indicates an underlying helminth infection. Infections are frequently either asymptomatic or associated with non-specific symptoms, but some can cause severe disease. Here the British Infection Society guidelines group reviews common and serious infectious(More)