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BACKGROUND This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) patients in(More)
OBJECTIVES An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed. The tuberculin skin test (TST) lacks sensitivity, particularly in HIV-infected individuals, and has poor specificity because of antigenic cross-reactivity with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are antigens expressed in Mycobacterium(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends the screening of all people living with HIV for tuberculosis (TB) disease, followed by TB treatment, or isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) when TB is excluded. However, the difficulty of reliably excluding TB disease has severely limited TB screening and IPT uptake in resource-limited settings. We(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) are replacing the tuberculin skin test (TST) as a diagnostic tool for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However research into the test's performance in the high HIV-TB burden setting is scarce. This study aimed to define the sensitivity of an IGRA, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QGIT), in adult Zambian(More)
We have investigated the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on the expression of class I HLA antigens on fibroblasts in vitro. Scanning and integrating microdensitometry was used to quantitate the level of cytoplasmic class I antigen expression, and an antibody binding assay was used to quantitate cell surface expression of class I HLA molecules. CMV(More)
Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone antibacterial agent to be developed for clinical use, was licensed in the UK in early 2001. We report the first three examples of resistant enterococci (two isolates of Enterococcus faecium and one Enterococcus faecalis) isolated in the UK, which were obtained from patients who had received linezolid. The linezolid MICs(More)
BACKGROUND The Stop TB Partnership target for tuberculosis is to have reduced the prevalence of tuberculosis by 50% comparing 2015 to 1990. This target is challenging as few prevalence surveys have been conducted, especially in high burden tuberculosis and HIV countries. Current tuberculosis control strategies in high HIV prevalent settings are therefore(More)
BACKGROUND Southern Africa has had an unprecedented increase in the burden of tuberculosis, driven by the HIV epidemic. The Zambia, South Africa Tuberculosis and AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) trial examined two public health interventions that aimed to reduce the burden of tuberculosis by facilitating either rapid sputum diagnosis or integrating tuberculosis and(More)
BACKGROUND Effective interventions to reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed. Mathematical modelling and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial results suggest that universal HIV testing combined with immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) should substantially reduce incidence and may eliminate HIV as a public health(More)
SETTING Urban primary health centres in Lusaka, Zambia. OBJECTIVES 1) To estimate patient costs for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment and 2) to identify determinants of patient costs. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 103 adult TB patients who had been on treatment for 1-3 months was conducted using a standardised questionnaire. Direct and(More)