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BACKGROUND This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) patients in(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends the screening of all people living with HIV for tuberculosis (TB) disease, followed by TB treatment, or isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) when TB is excluded. However, the difficulty of reliably excluding TB disease has severely limited TB screening and IPT uptake in resource-limited settings. We(More)
BACKGROUND The Stop TB Partnership target for tuberculosis is to have reduced the prevalence of tuberculosis by 50% comparing 2015 to 1990. This target is challenging as few prevalence surveys have been conducted, especially in high burden tuberculosis and HIV countries. Current tuberculosis control strategies in high HIV prevalent settings are therefore(More)
Automatic detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs is a difficult problem because of the diverse presentation of the disease. A combination of detection systems for abnormalities and normal anatomy is used to improve detection performance. A textural abnormality detection system operating at the pixel level is combined with a clavicle detection(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) are replacing the tuberculin skin test (TST) as a diagnostic tool for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However research into the test's performance in the high HIV-TB burden setting is scarce. This study aimed to define the sensitivity of an IGRA, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QGIT), in adult Zambian(More)
BACKGROUND Southern Africa has had an unprecedented increase in the burden of tuberculosis, driven by the HIV epidemic. The Zambia, South Africa Tuberculosis and AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) trial examined two public health interventions that aimed to reduce the burden of tuberculosis by facilitating either rapid sputum diagnosis or integrating tuberculosis and(More)
BACKGROUND Effective interventions to reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed. Mathematical modelling and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial results suggest that universal HIV testing combined with immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) should substantially reduce incidence and may eliminate HIV as a public health(More)
INTRODUCTION Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors(More)
BACKGROUND TB and HIV form a deadly synergy in much of the developing world, especially Africa. Interventions to reduce the impact of these diseases at community level are urgently needed. This paper presents the design of a community randomised trial to evaluate the impact of two complex interventions on the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in high HIV(More)
BACKGROUND The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of(More)