Helen A Weiss

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OBJECTIVE To estimate the sex-specific effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on the acquisition of HIV infection. BACKGROUND The increased number of longitudinal studies available since the last meta-analysis was published allows for the calculation of age- and sexual behaviour-adjusted relative risks (RR) separately for men and women. DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVES Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To systematically review studies of male circumcision and the risk of HIV-1 infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa, and to summarize the findings in a meta-analysis. DESIGN A meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS A systematic literature review was carried out of studies published up to April 1999 that included circumcision as a risk(More)
BACKGROUND Screening of patients for common mental disorders (CMDs) is needed in primary-care management programmes. This study aimed to compare the screening properties of five widely used questionnaires. METHOD Adult attenders in five primary-care settings in India were recruited through systematic sampling. Four questionnaires were administered, in(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether commercial sex transactions were more common and/or transmission between sex workers and clients more efficient in two African cities with high HIV prevalence (Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia) compared with two with relatively low HIV prevalence (Cotonou, Benin and Yaoundé, Cameroon). METHODS Data on sexual behaviour, HIV and(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a common infection in many countries, with prevalence in some regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa, higher than in the USA. Prevalence in adult general populations in sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 30% to 80% in women, and from 10% to 50% in men. Most data from Central and South America are from women, in whom HSV-2(More)
BACKGROUND Depression and anxiety disorders are common mental disorders worldwide. The MANAS trial aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors in primary care settings to improve outcomes of people with these disorders. METHODS In this cluster randomised trial, primary care facilities in Goa, India, were assigned (1:1)(More)
OBJECTIVE The impact of a multicomponent intervention programme on the sexual health of adolescents was assessed in rural Tanzania. DESIGN A community-randomized trial. METHODS Twenty communities were randomly allocated to receive either a specially designed programme of interventions (intervention group) or standard activities (comparison group). The(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with increased genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and HIV-1 transmissibility. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy with valacyclovir (at a dose of 500(More)
There is increasing interest in the role of early life exposures in breast carcinogenesis, especially estrogen exposure in utero. Estrogen levels during pregnancy may be higher in twin pregnancies and among older women and slightly lower among smokers. We analyzed early life risk factors in a population-based case-control study in the United States of 2,202(More)