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The nitrite anion is reduced to nitric oxide (NO*) as oxygen tension decreases. Whereas this pathway modulates hypoxic NO* signaling and mitochondrial respiration and limits myocardial infarction in mammalian species, the pathways to nitrite bioactivation remain uncertain. Studies suggest that hemoglobin and myoglobin may subserve a fundamental(More)
Bax and Bid are pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Upon cleavage by caspase-8, Bid activates Bax. Activated Bax inserts into the mitochondrial outer membrane forming oligomers which lead to membrane poration, release of cytochrome c, and apoptosis. The detailed mechanism of Bax activation and the topology and composition of the oligomers are(More)
Tethering factors are organelle-specific multisubunit protein complexes that identify, along with Rab guanosine triphosphatases, transport vesicles and trigger their SNARE-mediated fusion of specific transport vesicles with the target membranes. Little is known about how tethering factors discriminate between different trafficking pathways, which may(More)
Talin is a key protein involved in linking integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. The long flexible talin rod domain contains a number of binding sites for vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein important in stabilizing integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. Here we report the solution structure of a talin rod polypeptide (residues 1843-1973) which contains a(More)
Proximity relationships within three doubly spin-labeled variants of the Na+/proline transporter PutP of Escherichia coli were studied by means of four-pulse double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy. The large value of 4.8 nm for the interspin distance determined between positions 107 in loop 4 and 223 in loop 7 strongly supports the idea of these(More)
The bacterial SOS response is essential for the maintenance of genomes, and also modulates antibiotic resistance and controls multidrug tolerance in subpopulations of cells known as persisters. In Escherichia coli, the SOS system is controlled by the interplay of the dimeric LexA transcriptional repressor with an inducer, the active RecA filament, which(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoxic vasodilation is a physiological response to low oxygen tension that increases blood supply to match metabolic demands. Although this response has been characterized for >100 years, the underlying hypoxic sensing and effector signaling mechanisms remain uncertain. We have shown that deoxygenated myoglobin in the heart can reduce nitrite to(More)
The microtubule-associated protein tau stabilizes microtubules in its physiological role, whereas it forms insoluble aggregates (paired helical filaments) in Alzheimer's disease. Soluble tau is considered a natively unfolded protein whose residual folding and intramolecular interactions are largely undetermined. In this study, we have applied fluorescence(More)
ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that translocate solutes across biological membranes at the expense of ATP. In prokaryotic ABC importers, the extracytoplasmic anchoring of the substrate-binding protein (receptor) is emerging as a key determinant for the structural rearrangements in the cytoplasmically exposed ATP-binding cassette domains(More)
Site-directed spin labeling in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has emerged as an efficient tool to elucidate the structure and conformational dynamics of biomolecules under native-like conditions. This article summarizes the basics as well as recent progress of site-directed spin labeling. Continuous wave EPR spectra analyses(More)