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The last decade several cellular automata (CA) models have been developed in order to explain the solar flare statistics derived from observations. These models simulate the storage/release process using simple evolution rules, neglecting the details of the processes. The main advantage of this approach is the treatment of a large number of elementary(More)
The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the main concepts behind normal and anomalous diffusion. Starting from simple, but well known experiments, a series of mathematical modeling tools are introduced, and the relation between them is made clear. First, we show how Brownian motion can be understood in terms of a simple random walk model. Normal(More)
Electron and proton acceleration in three-dimensional electric and magnetic fields is studied through test particle simulations. The fields are obtained by a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetic reconnection in slab geometry. The nonlinear evolution of the system is characterized by the growth of many unstable modes and the initial(More)
The formation and evolution of active regions are inherently complex phenomena. Magnetic fields generated at the base of the convection zone follow a chaotic evolution before reaching the solar surface. In this article, we use a two-dimensional probabilistic cellular automaton to model the statistical properties of the magnetic patterns formed on the solar(More)
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