Heinz C. Schröder

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The major skeletal elements in the (Porifera) sponges, are spicules formed from inorganic material. The spicules in the Demospongiae class are composed of hydrated, amorphous silica. Recently an enzyme, silicatein, which polymerizes alkoxide substrates to silica was described from the sponge Tethya aurantia. In the present study the cDNA encoding silicatein(More)
The siliceous skeleton of demosponges is constructed of spicules. We have studied the formation of spicules in primmorphs from Suberites domuncula. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron-microscopical (TEM) analyses have revealed, in the center of the spicules, an axial canal that is 0.3–1.6 μm wide and filled with an axial filament. This(More)
Recent results revealed that inorganic polyphosphates (polyP), being energy-rich linear polymers of orthophosphate residues known from bacteria and yeast, also exist in higher eukaryotes. However, the enzymatic basis of their metabolism especially in mammalian cells is still uncertain. Here we demonstrate for the first time that alkaline phosphatase from(More)
Dissociated cells from marine demosponges retain their proliferation capacity if they are allowed to form special aggregates, the primmorphs. On the basis of incorporation studies and septin gene expression, we show that Fe3+ ions are required for the proliferation of cells in primmorphs from Suberites domuncula. In parallel, Fe3+ induced the expression of(More)
Among all metazoan phyla, sponges are known to produce the largest number of bioactive compounds. However, until now, only one compound, arabinofuranosyladenine, has been approved for application in humans. One major obstacle is the limited availability of larger quantities of defined sponge starting material. Recently, we introduced the in vitro culture of(More)
A rapid and convenient procedure for DNA damage determination in cell suspensions and solid tissues on single microplates was developed. The procedure is based on the ability of commercially available fluorochromes to interact preferentially with dsDNA in the presence of ssDNA, RNA, and proteins at high pH (>12.0), thus allowing direct measurements of DNA(More)
The hypothesis of an immunological defect in schizophrenia has been supported by reports on abnormal production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferons (IFNs) in schizophrenic patients. In the present study we determined the serum concentrations of IL-2, IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma in 10 first onset, neuroleptic-naive schizophrenics, in 6 pretreated patients(More)
Recently the term Urmetazoa, as the hypothetical metazoan ancestor, was introduced to highlight the finding that all metazoan phyla including the Porifera (sponges) are derived from one common ancestor. Sponges as the evolutionarily oldest, still extant phylum, are provided with a complex network of structural and functional molecules. Analyses of sponge(More)
Lake Baikal is considered as a unique place to study evolution. In this review, we report on recent data on the evolution of endemic freshwater sponges of this ancient lake. Nucleotide sequence data support the idea that these sponges are of monophyletic origin and evolved from Spongillidae. Baikalian sponges form the dominating biomass in the benthos of(More)
Sponges (Porifera) are the phylogenetically oldest still extant metazoan phylum. Recently elements of their immune system have been cloned and analyzed, primarily from the demosponges Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium. By differential display, two genes were identified in S. domuncula, whose translation products are involved in graft rejection/fusion:(More)