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The enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is the rate limiting enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading from L-citrulline to L-arginine, the physiological substrate of all isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (NOS). ASS and inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in neurons and glia was investigated by immunohistochemistry in brains of Alzheimer disease (AD)(More)
In brains of the rabbit, pig, and human, expression of the high-affinity Na+-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and of the protein RS1, which alters the activity of SGLT1, was demonstrated. In situ hybridization showed that SGLT1 and RS1 are transcribed in pyramidal cells of brain cortex and hippocampus and in Purkinje cells of cerebellum. In neurons of pig(More)
Transport of L-arginine and generation of nitrite in microglia-free astroglial cultures derived from neonatal mouse brain were stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LPS stimulated arginine transport between 1.3- and 2.5-fold; half-maximal stimulation was obtained with 0.3 micrograms/ml LPS. Acceleration of(More)
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) accumulate on long-lived protein deposits including beta-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AGE-modified amyloid deposits contain oxidized and nitrated proteins as markers of a chronic neuroinflammatory condition and are surrounded by activated microglial and astroglial cells. We show in this study that AGEs(More)
Uptake of radiolabeled myo-inositol was studied in astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from neonatal mouse brains. The uptake was saturable in the presence of Na+ with a Km of 25 microM and a Vmax of 60 pmol.min-1.(mg protein)-1, suggesting a high-affinity transport system for myo-inositol in astroglial cells. In addition, a Na(+)-independent,(More)
Astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from the brains of newborn rats can be grown in the presence of sorbitol or fructose. In the present study, evidence was obtained by enzymatic analysis and immunocytochemistry that fructose is further metabolized to fructose-6-phosphate and that fructokinase is lacking in the astrocytes. In contrast,(More)
Uptake of L-[(14)C]citrulline was studied in cell culture models of the main neural cell populations, in astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from neonatal rat brain, in rat glioma cells C6-BU-1, in cells of the murine microglial clone N11 and in the glioma x neuroblastoma hybrid cell line 108CC15 with neuronal properties. For comparison, cells of the(More)
Blood-tissue exchange and homeostasis within the organs depend on various interactions between endothelial and perivascular cells (Buniatian, 2001). Podocytes possess anatomical and cellular features intermediate between those of astrocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Podocytes, like HSCs, are associated with fenestrated capillaries and, similar to(More)
Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Transport of glutamine was investigated in primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons and compared to glutamine transport in cell lines with glial and neuronal properties. Glutamine uptake in astrocytes was mainly mediated by general(More)