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Evidence has recently begun to accumulate that photoperiodic responses of mammals and birds may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation. Exposure to short photoperiod can lower the set point for body temperature regulation in birds and mammals, as well as the voluntarily selected body temperature in ectothermic lizards. This decrease is(More)
The biochemistry and physiology of L-arginine have to be reconsidered in the light of the recent discovery that the amino acid is the only substrate of all isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Generation of nitric oxide, NO, a versatile molecule in signaling processes and unspecific immune defense, is intertwined with synthesis, catabolism and transport(More)
In brains of the rabbit, pig, and human, expression of the high-affinity Na+-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and of the protein RS1, which alters the activity of SGLT1, was demonstrated. In situ hybridization showed that SGLT1 and RS1 are transcribed in pyramidal cells of brain cortex and hippocampus and in Purkinje cells of cerebellum. In neurons of pig(More)
After cold exposure, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity increased about 2.5-fold within 2 weeks in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of Djungarian hamsters. The mRNAs for COX subunits I and III and the 12 S rRNA, encoded on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as well as mRNAs for COX subunits IV, Va and mitochondrial transcription factor A, encoded in the nucleus,(More)
Uptake of radiolabeled myo-inositol was studied in astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from neonatal mouse brains. The uptake was saturable in the presence of Na+ with a Km of 25 microM and a Vmax of 60 pmol.min-1.(mg protein)-1, suggesting a high-affinity transport system for myo-inositol in astroglial cells. In addition, a Na(+)-independent,(More)
The biological active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD), regulates cellular growth and differentiation. This provides the hormone with an interesting therapeutic potential. However, hypercalcemia is a side effect, which is caused by VD's classical action, the regulation of calcium homeostasis. This made the need for VD analogues with(More)
Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Transport of glutamine was investigated in primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons and compared to glutamine transport in cell lines with glial and neuronal properties. Glutamine uptake in astrocytes was mainly mediated by general(More)
Our recent study [Danielyan et al., 2005. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 84, 567-579] showed an additive protective effect of endothelin (ET) receptor A (ETA-R) blockade and erythropoietin (EPO) on the survival and rejuvenation of rat astroglial cells exposed to hypoxia. Whether the effects observed with rodent astroglial cells can be reproduced in human astrocytes and(More)
The enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is the rate limiting enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading from L-citrulline to L-arginine, the physiological substrate of all isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (NOS). ASS and inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in neurons and glia was investigated by immunohistochemistry in brains of Alzheimer disease (AD)(More)