Heinrich Wiesinger

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The biochemistry and physiology of L-arginine have to be reconsidered in the light of the recent discovery that the amino acid is the only substrate of all isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Generation of nitric oxide, NO, a versatile molecule in signaling processes and unspecific immune defense, is intertwined with synthesis, catabolism and transport(More)
The enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is the rate limiting enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading from L-citrulline to L-arginine, the physiological substrate of all isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (NOS). ASS and inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in neurons and glia was investigated by immunohistochemistry in brains of Alzheimer disease (AD)(More)
Cultured astroglial cells are able to utilize the monosaccharides glucose, mannose, or fructose as well as the sugar alcohol sorbitol as energy fuel. Astroglial uptake of the aldoses is carrier-mediated, whereas a non-saturable transport mechanism is operating for fructose and sorbitol. The first metabolic step for all sugars, including fructose being(More)
The uptake of L-lactate was investigated in neuronal primary cultures derived from embryonic rat brain with a radioactive tracer method. After preincubation of the cells in glucose-free buffer for 30 min, uptake increased with time for at least 10 min. A saturable component of uptake was found with half-maximal uptake at 10 mM lactate. This saturable(More)
In brains of the rabbit, pig, and human, expression of the high-affinity Na+-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and of the protein RS1, which alters the activity of SGLT1, was demonstrated. In situ hybridization showed that SGLT1 and RS1 are transcribed in pyramidal cells of brain cortex and hippocampus and in Purkinje cells of cerebellum. In neurons of pig(More)
Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Transport of glutamine was investigated in primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons and compared to glutamine transport in cell lines with glial and neuronal properties. Glutamine uptake in astrocytes was mainly mediated by general(More)
In the present study it was tested whether rat alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) convert l-citrulline to l-arginine to maintain nitric oxide (NO) synthesis under conditions of limited availability of l-arginine. Rat AMΦ (0.5×106 cells/well, cultured for 20 h in the absence or presence of 1 µg/ml lipopolysaccharides, LPS), were incubated for 6 h in amino acid-free(More)
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) accumulate on long-lived protein deposits including beta-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AGE-modified amyloid deposits contain oxidized and nitrated proteins as markers of a chronic neuroinflammatory condition and are surrounded by activated microglial and astroglial cells. We show in this study that AGEs(More)
Uptake of radiolabeled myo-inositol was studied in astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from neonatal mouse brains. The uptake was saturable in the presence of Na+ with a Km of 25 microM and a Vmax of 60 pmol.min-1.(mg protein)-1, suggesting a high-affinity transport system for myo-inositol in astroglial cells. In addition, a Na(+)-independent,(More)
Metabolic pathways underlying the regeneration of reduced glutathione were investigated in acutely isolated metabolically active mitochondria from rat forebrain. The application of hydrogen peroxide to the organelles was accompanied by a transient increase in glutathione disulfide. The recovery of reduced glutathione was significantly improved in the(More)