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Detecting sounds in quiet is the simplest task performed by the auditory system, but the neural mechanisms underlying perceptual detection thresholds for sounds in quiet are still not understood. Heil and Neubauer [Heil, P., Neubauer, H., 2003. A unifying basis of auditory thresholds based on temporal summation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 6151-6156](More)
BACKGROUND The classification of Brucella into species and biovars relies on phenotypic characteristics and sometimes raises difficulties in the interpretation of the results due to an absence of standardization of the typing reagents. In addition, the resolution of this biotyping is moderate and requires the manipulation of the living agent. More efficient(More)
Current propositions of the quantity of sound driving the central auditory system, specifically around threshold, are diverse and at variance with one another. They include sound pressure, sound power, or intensity, which are proportional to the square of pressure, and energy, i.e., the integral of sound power over time. Here we show that the relevant sound(More)
Thresholds of auditory-nerve (AN) fibers and auditory neurons are commonly specified in terms of sound pressure only, implying that they are independent of time. At the perceptual level, however, the sound pressure required for detection decreases with increasing stimulus duration, suggesting that the auditory system integrates sound over time. The quantity(More)
Recent studies have shown a close correspondence between perceptual detection thresholds for sounds in quiet and a measure of neuronal thresholds derived from the stimulus-dependent timing of the first spike of auditory-nerve fibers. In addition, stimulus properties might be encoded by differences in first-spike timing of neurons in the central auditory(More)
In several sensory systems, the conversion of the representation of stimuli from graded membrane potentials into stochastic spike trains is performed by ribbon synapses. In the mammalian auditory system, the spiking characteristics of the vast majority of primary afferent auditory-nerve (AN) fibers are determined primarily by a single ribbon synapse in a(More)
Theories of harmony state that the contribution of both sensory and cognitive components is important for musical consonance perception. The aims of the present study were to analyze (a) functional intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity associated with listening to consonant and dissonant chords using EEG coherence method; (b) relationships between(More)
Several recent studies of mature auditory and vestibular hair cells (HCs), and of visual and olfactory receptor cells, have observed nearly linear dependencies of the rate of neurotransmitter release events, or related measures, on the magnitude of Ca(2+)-entry into the cell. These relationships contrast with the highly supralinear, third to fourth power,(More)
Acoustic information is conveyed to the brain by the spike patterns in auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs). In mammals, each ANF is excited via a single ribbon synapse in a single inner hair cell (IHC), and the spike patterns therefore also provide valuable information about those intriguing synapses. Here we reexamine and model a key property of ANFs, the(More)
BACKGROUND Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is a young and highly monomorphic species. Three biovars, each one thought to be associated with the last three Y. pestis pandemics, have been defined based on biochemical assays. More recently, DNA based assays, including DNA sequencing, IS typing, DNA arrays, have significantly improved current knowledge on(More)