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Current propositions of the quantity of sound driving the central auditory system, specifically around threshold, are diverse and at variance with one another. They include sound pressure, sound power, or intensity, which are proportional to the square of pressure, and energy, i.e., the integral of sound power over time. Here we show that the relevant sound(More)
In several sensory systems, the conversion of the representation of stimuli from graded membrane potentials into stochastic spike trains is performed by ribbon synapses. In the mammalian auditory system, the spiking characteristics of the vast majority of primary afferent auditory-nerve (AN) fibers are determined primarily by a single ribbon synapse in a(More)
BACKGROUND The classification of Brucella into species and biovars relies on phenotypic characteristics and sometimes raises difficulties in the interpretation of the results due to an absence of standardization of the typing reagents. In addition, the resolution of this biotyping is moderate and requires the manipulation of the living agent. More efficient(More)
BACKGROUND Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is a young and highly monomorphic species. Three biovars, each one thought to be associated with the last three Y. pestis pandemics, have been defined based on biochemical assays. More recently, DNA based assays, including DNA sequencing, IS typing, DNA arrays, have significantly improved current knowledge on(More)
Detecting sounds in quiet is the simplest task performed by the auditory system, but the neural mechanisms underlying perceptual detection thresholds for sounds in quiet are still not understood. Heil and Neubauer [Heil, P., Neubauer, H., 2003. A unifying basis of auditory thresholds based on temporal summation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 6151-6156](More)
Thresholds of auditory-nerve (AN) fibers and auditory neurons are commonly specified in terms of sound pressure only, implying that they are independent of time. At the perceptual level, however, the sound pressure required for detection decreases with increasing stimulus duration, suggesting that the auditory system integrates sound over time. The quantity(More)
Recent studies have shown a close correspondence between perceptual detection thresholds for sounds in quiet and a measure of neuronal thresholds derived from the stimulus-dependent timing of the first spike of auditory-nerve fibers. In addition, stimulus properties might be encoded by differences in first-spike timing of neurons in the central auditory(More)
Camels are highly susceptible to brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. Difficulties can arise in diagnosis of camel brucellosis, especially as this disease provokes only few clinical signs in contrast to its clinical course in cattle. Because none of the commonly used serological test can be perceived as a perfect test for Brucella(More)
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis causing reproductive failures in livestock and a severe multi-organ disease in humans. The genus Brucella is divided into seven species and various biotypes differing in pathogenicity and host specificity. Although Brucella spp. represent a highly homogenous group of bacteria, RFLPs of selected genes display sufficient(More)
The antibiotic susceptibilities of 50 Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica biovar II strains isolated from hares and human patients from the eastern part of Austria were examined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 24 antimicrobial agents were determined using Eteststrade mark on cysteine heart agar plates supplemented with 10% sheep blood. All(More)