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We investigated the characteristics of periodic leg movements (PLM) during nocturnal sleep and wakefulness in 13 drug-free patients presenting with the restless legs syndrome (RLS, n = 9) or with isolated PLM (n = 4). Eight-hour polygraphic sleep recordings included the electromyogram (EMG) of both tibialis anterior muscles. Scoring of leg movements was(More)
Narcolepsy runs in families, and recent research has revealed the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR2 to be a genetic marker closely associated with the disease. But, as indicated by family studies, other factors contribute to the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. The investigation of monozygotic twins is the most specific research tool for distinguishing between a(More)
In order to determine if renin release would be affected by a dysfunction of the circadian and ultradian organization of sleep, 24-hour profiles of plasma renin activity (PRA) concomitant with sleep stages were established in 10 normal subjects and nine narcoleptic patients, with 10-minute blood sampling intervals. Mean PRA levels were similar in control(More)
The authors examined HLA antigens in 124 narcoleptics. In addition to narcolepsy, 122 patients suffered also from cataplexy. The two patients without cataplexy suffered also from sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations. These two symptoms were also present in many of the other patients. HLA group DR2 was found in 120 patients including all six(More)
This paper is part of a larger project on the role of foreign banks in emerging markets (see Schulz 2005a/b for studies of foreign bank entry in Brazil and Korea). Initial work was undertaken as part of a study on foreign direct investment in developing countries by the Abstract Since Mexico opened its banking sector to foreign competition following the(More)
This article sums up the scientific results of the past 10 years on narcolepsy reflecting its impact on socio-medical impairment of narcoleptic patients. Extensive epidemiological studies showed that major restrictions for narcolepsy patients are caused by daytime sleepiness and sleep attacks with consecutive cognitive and memory deficits high accident(More)