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OBJECTIVES Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth(More)
BACKGROUND Bullying has been shown to be a serious problem amongst school children, but few studies have been population-based and included pre-school children. METHODS The study is part of a cross-sectional comparative study in 1984 and 1996, focusing on children's and their families' health and welfare in the Nordic countries. At each point of time(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between maternal pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight change during pregnancy and offspring birthweight using the BMI classification developed by World Health Organization (WHO) and adopted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2009. DESIGN The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a(More)
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are widely present in human populations. In order to investigate human exposure pathways and associations with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, 393 breast milk samples from mothers living in various regions throughout Norway were analyzed. Up to ten PBDE congeners(More)
At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her(More)
BACKGROUND There is little information about meal patterns and food consumption of adolescents in Palestine. The objective of this study was to describe the association between sociodemographic factors and food intake, and meal patterns among Palestinian school adolescents (12-15 year) in North Gaza Strip. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in(More)
Prevalence and incidence measures are the common way to describe epidemics. The reproduction number supplies information on the potential for growth or decline of an epidemic. We define an actual reproduction number for infectious disease transmission that has taken place. An estimator is suggested, based on the number of new infections observed in a given(More)
Compelling evidence suggests a causal relation between parental smoking during and after pregnancy and adverse effects on respiratory health in the offspring. The authors' aim in this study was to disentangle the effects of prenatal and postnatal smoking on early childhood respiratory health. Most parents who smoke during pregnancy continue to smoke(More)
BACKGROUND Folate supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to reduce the risk of congenital malformations. Maternal intake of folate supplements during pregnancy might also influence childhood immune phenotypes via epigenetic mechanisms. OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between folate supplements in pregnancy and risk of lower(More)
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of parent-reported pain among children in the Nordic countries in 1996, and to describe the association between recurrent pain in children and parental socio-economic factors. We also wanted to estimate the association between parental pain and childhood pain and co-occurrence of different pain patterns(More)