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We aimed at comparing the effects of intravenous (i.v.) and inhaled (inh.) levosimendan (LEVO) on survival, inflammatory cytokines and the apoptotic mediator caspase-3 in a rat model of severe sepsis induced by cecal ligation and incision (CLI). Twenty-eight anesthetized/ventilated male Sprague–Dawley rats (body weight 528 ± 20 g) underwent laparotomy.(More)
BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics and hypothermia attenuate the inflammatory response. We aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane and mild hypothermia during experimental endotoxemia in the rat. METHODS Anesthetized, ventilated Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly treated as follows (n = 6 per group): lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only,(More)
High-pressure ventilation induces barotrauma and pulmonary inflammation, thus leading to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). IL-22 has both immunoregulatory and tissue-protective properties. Functional IL-22 receptor expression is restricted to nonleukocytic cells, such as alveolar epithelial cells. When applied via inhalation, IL-22 reaches the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that volatile anaesthetics have anti-inflammatory and preconditioning properties and that beta-adrenoceptors are involved in the signalling pathways for these effects. Concurrently, the blockade of beta-adrenoceptors has been shown to augment the release of inflammatory mediators in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. We(More)
We set out to investigate whether the nebulized and inhaled specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CHO has the potential to attenuate the pulmonary and systemic release of the caspase-1-dependent cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as well as their downstream enzymes iNOS and COX-2 in rat experimental endotoxaemia. Controlled,(More)
BACKGROUND Sepsis is a leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Up to now, severe sepsis with acute onset in animals has been induced mainly through injection of single bacteria species or endotoxin and not through a surgical procedure, which might adequately mirror the situation in septic patients. We therefore aimed to establish a surgical(More)
Despite the success of the anti-coagulant protease protein C (PC) in treating septic shock in humans, the signaling pathways used are still unclear. To explore the effects of treatment with PC zymogen and its activated form aPC in a setting of sepsis, we employed a piglet model of endotoxic shock. In the aPC group, we observed a 65%-90% reduction in plasma(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to clarify if inhaled interleukin (IL)-10 attenuates pulmonary and systemic inflammation as indicated by reduced content of proinflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma in experimental endotoxemia in the rat. DESIGN Laboratory experiment. SETTING University research institute. SUBJECTS Anesthetized,(More)
Though often lifesaving, mechanical ventilation itself bears the risk of lung damage [ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI)]. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, but stress-induced mediators seem to play an important role in biotrauma related to VILI. Our purpose was to evaluate an animal model of VILI that allows the(More)
Volatile anesthetics such as isoflurane have been shown to offer anti-inflammatory effects during experimental endotoxemia whereas the alpha-adrenergic vasopressor norepinephrine exhibits proinflammatory properties on systemic cytokine release under the same conditions. However, during major surgery and in patients with systemic inflammatory response(More)