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The processing of gaze cues plays an important role in social interactions, and mutual gaze in particular is relevant for natural as well as video-mediated communications. Mutual gaze occurs when an observer looks at or in the direction of the eyes of another person. The authors chose the metaphor of a cone of gaze to characterize this range of gaze(More)
Transfer from perception to action is well documented, for instance in the form of observational learning. Transfer from action to perception, on the other hand, has not been researched. Such action-perception transfer (APT) is compatible with several learning theories and has been predicted within the framework of common coding of perceptual and motor(More)
The time until an approaching object will pass an observer (time to passage, or TTP) is optically specified by a global flow field even in the absence of local expansion or size cues. Kaiser and Mowafy (1993) have demonstrated that observers are in fact sensitive to this global flow information. The present studies investigate two factors that are usually(More)
The stereokinetic effect (SKE) has been defined and studied by nested circular patterns rotating on a turntable. Circles must appear not to rotate as they revolve, which in turn results in their appearing to translate relative to one another. A powerful illusion of object depth results even though the individual circles do not undergo an appropriate(More)
In many situations, it is necessary to predict when a moving object will reach a given target even though the object may be partially or entirely occluded. Typically, one would track the moving object with eye movements, but it remains unclear whether ocular pursuit facilitates accurate estimation of time-to-contact (TTC). The present study examined this(More)
When people are instructed to locate the vanishing location of a moving target, systematic errors forward in the direction of motion (M-displacement) and downward in the direction of gravity (O-displacement) are found. These phenomena came to be linked with the notion that physical invariants are embedded in the dynamic representations generated by the(More)
The ability to estimate the time remaining until collision occurs with an approaching object (time-to-collision, TTC) is crucial for any mobile animal. In the present study, we report three experiments examining whether higher level cognitive factors, represented by affective value of approaching objects, could affect judgments of TTC. A theory of TTC(More)
The memory for the vanishing location of a horizontally moving target is usually displaced forward in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, this downward displacement has been shown to increase with time (representational trajectory). However, the degree to which(More)
On Earth, gravity accelerates freely moving objects downward, whereas upward-moving objects are being decelerated. Do humans take internalised knowledge of gravity into account when estimating time-to-contact (TTC, the time remaining before the moving object reaches the observer)? To answer this question, we created a motion-prediction task in which(More)
Boundary extension is a tendency to remember close-up scenes as if they extended beyond the occluding boundaries. The authors explored the contributing factors using brief retention intervals and computer-generated images. Boundary extension turns out to be more complex than previously thought and is not linked to the effects of image magnification and(More)