Heiko H. Heerklotz

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Biological membranes are supposed to contain functional domains (lipid rafts) made up in particular of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, glycolipids, and certain proteins. It is often assumed that the application of the detergent Triton at 4 degrees C allows the isolation of these rafts as a detergent-resistant membrane fraction. The current study aims to(More)
Three originally distinct concepts - lipid rafts, detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and liquid-ordered (lo) lipid phases - are often confused in current literature; many researchers have assumed that all three names refer to the same chemico-biological entity. In fact, theoretical and experimental findings provide strong evidence against identifying DRMs(More)
Surfactin is a bacterial lipopeptide with powerful surfactant-like properties. High-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry was used to study the self association and membrane partitioning of surfactin. The critical micellar concentration (CMC), was 7.5 microM, the heat of micellization was endothermic with DeltaH(w-->m)(Su) = +4.0 kcal/mol, and the(More)
Cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger involved in the regulation of cell surface-associated traits and persistence. We have determined the crystal structure of PleD from Caulobacter crescentus, a response regulator with a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) domain, in its activated form. The BeF(3)(-) modification of(More)
The interaction of surfactants with membranes has been difficult to monitor since most detergents are small organic molecules without spectroscopic markers. The development of high sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has changed this situation distinctly. The insertion of a detergent into the bilayer membrane is generally accompanied by a(More)
Surfactants are surface-active, amphiphilic compounds that are water-soluble in the micro- to millimolar range, and self-assemble to form micelles or other aggregates above a critical concentration. This definition comprises synthetic detergents as well as amphiphilic peptides and lipopeptides, bile salts and many other compounds. This paper reviews the(More)
Surfactin is a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis which possesses antimicrobial activity. We have studied the leakage and lysis of POPC vesicles induced by surfactin using calcein fluorescence de-quenching, isothermal titration calorimetry and 31P solid state NMR. Membrane leakage starts at a surfactin-to-lipid ratio in the membrane, R b ≈ 0.05, and(More)
The membrane/water partition coefficients, K, of 15 electrically neutral (non-charged or zwitterionic) detergents were measured with phospholipid vesicles by using isothermal titration calorimetry, and were compared to the corresponding critical micellar concentrations, cmc. The detergents measured were oligo(ethylene oxide) alkyl ethers (C(m)EO(n) with m =(More)
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from NBD-PE to rhodamine-PE has been used to measure the average area occupied by surfactant molecules in lipid bilayers. The Foerster radius has been determined from the spectral overlap of donor fluorescence and acceptor absorption (R 0=4.6 nm). The results of steady-state as well as of time-resolved(More)
The area balance or imbalance between the inner and outer monolayer of biological membranes is a key parameter for driving shape changes (including exo and endocytosis) and controlling the bilayer curvature stress. The asymmetric incorporation of a drug or biological agent interferes with these processes, and the subsequent stress may lead to a membrane(More)