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Neural stem cells reside in two major niches in the adult brain [i.e., the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus]. Insults to the brain such as cerebral ischemia result in a physiological mobilization of endogenous neural stem cells. Since recent studies showed that pharmacological stimulation can be used to expand the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Experimental stroke models are essential to study in vivo pathophysiological processes of focal cerebral ischemia. In this study, an embolic stroke model in rats was applied (1) to characterize early development of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism with positron emission tomography (PET) using [(15)O]H(2)O and(More)
Decision making refers to the process by which subjects choose between competing courses of action based on the expected costs and benefits of their consequences. Lesion studies in rats suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens are key structures of a neural system that subserves effort-based decision making. Little is known about(More)
Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), persistent microglial activation as sign of chronic neuroinflammation contributes to disease progression. Our study aimed to in vivo visualize and quantify microglial activation in 13- to 15-month-old AD mice using [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195 and positron emission tomography (PET). We attempted to modulate neuroinflammation by(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke patients suffering from occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACAo) develop cognitive and executive deficits. Experimental models to investigate such functional impairments and recovery are rare and not satisfyingly validated. NEW METHOD We stereotactically injected the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) close to the ACA of rats(More)
PURPOSE Compartmental modelling of 3′-deoxy-3′-[18F]-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET-derived kinetics provides a method for noninvasive assessment of the proliferation rate of gliomas. Such analyses, however, require an input function generally derived by serial blood sampling and counting. In the current study, 18F-FLT kinetic parameters obtained from(More)
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the 'capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has shown clinical success in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations of EGFR were found in lung adenocarcinoma that lead to exquisite dependency on EGFR signaling; thus patients with EGFR-mutant tumors are at high chance of response to EGFR inhibitors.(More)
Conflicts in spatial stimulus-response tasks occur when the task-relevant feature of a stimulus implies a response toward a certain location which does not match the location of stimulus presentation. This conflict leads to increased error rates and longer reaction times, which has been termed Simon effect. A model of dual route processing (automatic and(More)