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BACKGROUND Reversal of the progressive increase in frequency of atopic disease would be an important breakthrough for health care and wellbeing in western societies. In the hygiene hypothesis this increase is attributed to reduced microbial exposure in early life. Probiotics are cultures of potentially beneficial bacteria of the healthy gut microflora. We(More)
BACKGROUND According to data from animal and in vitro studies, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has a crucial effect on 2 essential parts of the mucosal immune system: IgA production and oral tolerance induction. OBJECTIVE We sought to ascertain whether TGF-beta in breast milk is associated with specific IgA production and atopic disease in(More)
Perinatal administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103), reduces incidence of atopic eczema in at-risk children during the first 2 years of life (infancy). We have therefore assessed persistence of the potential to prevent atopic eczema at 4 years. Atopic disease was diagnosed on the basis of a questionnaire and a clinical(More)
The gastrointestinal tract functions as a barrier against antigens from microorganisms and food. The generation of immunophysiologic regulation in the gut depends on the establishment of indigenous microflora. This has led to the introduction of novel therapeutic interventions based on the consumption of cultures of beneficial live microorganisms that act(More)
AIM To evaluate the role of intestinal microflora and early formula feeding in the maturation of humoral immunity in healthy newborn infants. STUDY DESIGN Sixty four healthy infants were studied. Faecal colonisation with Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium-like, and Lactobacillus-like bacteria was examined at 1, 2, and 6 months of age, and also(More)
The effect of dietary therapy with a human Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103), bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum with specific antibodies against anaerobic intestinal bacteria on gut defence mechanisms were studied in juvenile chronic arthritis. Thirty patients with juvenile chronic arthritis were randomly allocated to receive a freeze-dried(More)
The first months of life represent a critical period for the maturation of the infant's immune system and, thus, a window of opportunity for measures to reduce the risk of disease. We hypothesized that specific probiotics might promote mucosal immunologic maturation in formula-fed infants. The numbers of cow's milk-specific and total IgA-secreting cells(More)
The outer-membrane protein pertactin (Prn) of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica is believed to function as an adhesin and is an important immunogen. The emergence of B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica Prn variants has been reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether similar variation is found in B.(More)
Human Lactobacillus sp strain GG (Lactobacillus GG) administered during acute rotavirus diarrhea has been shown to promote clinical recovery. To elucidate the immune mechanisms behind such a favorable outcome, the ELISPOT (solid phase enzyme-linked immunospot) assay of Ig- and specific antibody-secreting cells among circulating lymphocytes was used, giving(More)